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by: Alexis Fulton


Alexis Fulton

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notes from week 5
Cultural Diversity in the Modern World
Renee Bonzani
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Fulton on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 160 at University of Kentucky taught by Renee Bonzani in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Cultural Diversity in the Modern World in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Kentucky.

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Date Created: 02/12/16
Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture Outlines for ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Migration in Prehistoric Times   Migration has been and is a basic aspect of human adaptations.  There are three well researched phases of human migration in prehistory and a fourth in historic  times. Information from: Peter Bellwood. 2013. First Migrants: Ancient Migration in Global  Perspective. Wiley, Blackwell,  Malden, MA. 1. Migrations of the extinct members of the genus Homo, such as Homo erectus and  Neanderthals, after about 2.5 million years ago, within and out of Africa 2. Migrations of ancestral modern humans (Homo sapiens) throughout most of the world  including Australia and the Americas, between about 120,000 and 25,000 years ago 3.   Migrations of herders, farmers, and boat builders in a number of separate waves in  various parts of the world except Antarctica during the last 10,000 years 4. The fourth historic migration phase or “diaspora” involved ca.  150 million people in  three waves peaking in the 1840s and the 1950s.  One wave went from Western Europe to the Americas and Australasia. Another went from India and China to the Indian Ocean rim, Southeast Asia, and the South  Pacific. A third migration went from Russia and China into central and northeastern Asia. 1 Bellwood (2013:5) notes: “But, in my view, the real energy behind the world’s major colonizing  migrations was human and demographic, in the sense that increasing human populations required new resources, especially territory, and more so if other groups or declining environmental  conditions impinged on a long­term basis on the territories they already held.” Peopling of the Americas or New World What were the environmental conditions?  Where did they come from?   How did they get here? How did they adapt and organize themselves?  When did they arrive?   Pleistocene conditions (1.9 million­11,000 years BP) Glaciers and lower sea levels Cooler temperatures Generally drier conditions (some areas were wetter) Localized, isolated “refuges” of plant and animal species Environmental zones were mixed and not always distinct.  2 Where did they come from? Skeletal Evidence DNA / Molecular Biology Evidence ­ Native north Americans descended from 3­4 populations ­ Native south Americans appear to be descended from one main population ­ Founder principle Linguistic Evidence  Multiple Migrations How did they adapt and organize themselves? Hunter­gatherers­fishers Megafauna Smaller game animals (deer) Various wild plants (nuts, fruits, tubers, and rhizomes) Small bands Mobile Relatively egalitarian Communal decision­making Leadership was impermanent and based on age, ability, or group consent Simple domestic structures 3 Technology Various implements made from stone, wood, hide, bone, plant fibers. Religion based on anthropomorphized entities in nature. Supernatural forces and spirits emanate from or inhabit elements of nature. Shamans: part­time religious practitioners who negotiate between the supernatural realm  and humans. Healers. Colonize a pristine habitat (likely along the coasts first). Settle in. Reproduce. Daughter colonies “budded off” to repeat the process. Likely stair­step colonization pattern in the high mountains. Examples of Archaeological Sites in North America with Evidence of Early Human  Occupation Meadowcroft Rockshelter 16,000 Radiocarbon years BP Other Early Sites Cactus Hill (ca. 15,000 – 17,000 BP) Topper Site (ca. 16,000 BP) Clovis Site (13,000 – 13,500 BP) 4 Lindenmeier Site (ca.11,000 BP) Cultural Evolution: North America Paleoindian Period (47,000 – 10,000 BP) Archaic Period (10,000 – 3,000 BP) Woodland Period (3,000 – 1,000 BP [AD 1,000]) Mississippian/Fort Ancient Period (1,000 – 300 BP [AD 1,000­1700]) Cultural Evolution: Mesoamerica Paleoindian Period (35,000/ 14,000 – 8,000 B.C.) Archaic Period (8,000 – 2,000 B.C.) Preclassic or Formative Period (ca. 2,000B.C. – A.D. 300) Classic Period (A.D. 300 – 900) Postclassic Period (A.D. 900 – 1521) Meadowcroft Rockshelter Located near Avella, Washington County, southwestern Pennsylvania. Rockshelter located in a wooded area overlooking Cross Creek, a tributary to the Ohio River in  the Allegheny Plataea, west of the Appalachian Mountains.  The site has yielded Paleoindian, Archaic, and Woodland remains. The site has yielded Pre­Clovis lithic remains at depths of ca. 11.5  feet beneath ground surface. Also recovered were remains of pottery, lithic blades, bifaces, a lanceolate projectile point,  chipping debris, animal remains of up to 149 species, and plant remains including corn,  squash,  fruits, nuts, and other seeds. 5 The Clovis Site This tradition may be indicative of population movements or the adoption of a superior lithic  technology. Well known for the lithic tools named “Clovis Points” which are bifacial and typically fluted on  both sides. Tools were first identified in 1936 – 1938 at Blackwater Locality No. 1, located near Clovis,  New Mexico. Later Post­Clovis traditions or horizons include Folsom, Gainey, Suwannee­Simpson, Plainview­ Goshen, Cumberland, and Redstone.  The sites in these traditions are known for big game hunting. Lindenmeier Site More than 15,000 animal bones recovered including wolf, coyote, fox, hare, rabbit, turtle, deer,  antelope and bison. Approximately 50,000 lithic artifacts and bone artifacts recovered including Folsom points,  needles, and beads. Other sites Cactus Hill: located in southeastern Virginia on sand dunes overlooking the Nottoway River.  Multiple occupation levels including Pre­Clovis remains from 15,000­17,000 BP and fluted  stone tools of the Clovis Culture dated to 10,920 BP. Topper Site: located along the Savannah River in Allendale County, South Carolina. Pre­Clovis  remains recovered possibly dating to 16,000 BP. Earlier carbonized remains and possible lithic  tools dated to 50,000 BP are disputed. 6 Examples of Archaeological Sites in South America with Evidence of Early Human  Occupation Cultural Evolution: South America Lithic Period (ca. 14,850 – 4500 BP)  Early and Middle Preceramic Period  Preceramic Period (ca. 4500 – 4000 BP)  Late Preceramic Period  Initial Period (ca. 4000 – 2700 BP)  Early Horizon (ca. 2700 – 2000 BP)  Early Intermediate Period ( ca. 2000 – 1400 BP)  Middle Horizon (ca. 1400 – 1000 BP)  Late Intermediate Period (ca. 1000 BP – 500 BP)  Late Horizon (ca. 500 BP – European Contact in AD 1532) Colonization Process: How did they get here? Monte Verde 12,500 Radiocarbon years BP Other Early Sites Taima­Taima (ca.13,000 BP) Tagua­Tagua (11,400 BP) Quebrada Jaguay (11,100 BP) Pedra Pintada (ca.11,200 BP) 7 Increase in sites ~11,000­10,000 BP Monte Verde ­ Southern Chile ­ Subarctic pine forest ­ Cultural level buried beneath layer of peat Substantial Evidence of human occupation Human footprint Dwellings of different forms Wooden artifacts Projectile points Other stone tools Animal bones Edible and Medicinal plant remains Cooking hearths Activities Domestic activities (likely communal) Processing of game Ritual feasting Preparation of herbal medicines Possibly shamanistic healing Diet Mastodon 8 Camelids Small Game Plants Likely year­round occupation 9


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