PSC 1001; Ethnicity
PSC 1001; Ethnicity PSC 1001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eleanor Parry on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Christopher Mitchell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Intro to Comparative Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Ethnicity and Mobilization • Ethnicity a shared identity ◦ Co-ethics a more trusted "in-group" ◦ Shared symbols and values ‣ Perceived blood ties ‣ Common history ‣ Possible religions traditions • Blends into ethnic nationalism ◦ May or may not be mobilized ◦ May or may not have nation-state aspirations Problems of Politicized Ethnicity • Ethnic conflict more bitter ◦ US v Them zero sum conflict ◦ Can't win over other side with arguments • Ethnic minorities have reason to worry ◦ Dominant group biases favor in-group ◦ Minority may lack strength to protect itself ◦ May not be able to win democratically Effects of Ethnic Conflict • Undermining national unity ◦ Prevent formation of national identity ◦ Second-class citizens in ethnic nations ◦ Problems in civic nations ‣ Ethnic challenged to civic nationalism ‣ Highlight gap between rhetorically and reality • Limiting economic growth Case Study: Yugoslavia Sources of Ethnic Conflict 1. Ancient Hatreds A. Modern conflict an extension of centuries of conflict B. The Battle of Kosovo C. But historical narratives are long & complex 2. Elite Actors A. Political entrepreneurs promote conflict B. Most violence by a small group of thugs 3. Greed vs Grievance A. Conflict of ideology or ethnicity in center B. Provides cover for opportunism Possible Solutions to Ethnic Conflict 1. Partition A. Separate the warring parties B. Where to draw the line? a. New minorities left behind or emigrate b. Distribution of resources 1. Not just oil but ports manufacturing base C. New states too small to be viable D. Moral Hazard a. Encourage secessionist elsewhere b. Powerful states have secessionists 2. Formation of Common Identity A. Play up existing connections a. Religious identity b. Common ideology B. Cultivate supra ethnic identities a. Common European identity C. If it works, the most stable & permanent solution D. Problems: a. Long time horizon 1. 2-3 generations b. Extremely hard to do well 1. Can last for decades then vanish overnight 3. Institutional Arrangements A. Partition Unification both Problematic B. Federalism a. Ethnic group dominates federal units b. Central Government protects minorities in ethnic enclaves c. Retains advantages of integration d. Minimize loss of resource base e. Problems: 1. Reduces but doesn't eliminate problems A. Resource distribution B. Minority majority persecution C. No good for geographically diffuse minority 2. Control of center still an issue 3. Local governments may be basis for secession 4. General disadvantages of federalism A. Constant center-region struggles B. Less policy coordination C. Consocialationism a. Cooperation not Competition b. Electoral System Design c. Macro-Level Power Sharing d. Reservations and Quotas 1. Quotas A. Encourage multi-ethnic parties B. Work poorly if ethnicity particized C. Work poorly in SMD systems 2. Reservations A. Guarantee representation B. Don't interfere with inner workings of part systems C. Require either special elections or gerrymandering 3. Other power sharing A. Electoral threshold requirements a. Nigeria: President must win at least 25% of the vote in at least 2/3 of the states B. Designated offices a. Lebanon's confessionals 1. Reserved offices for various groups Hope for Resolving Ethnic Conflict? • Many states have successfully managed for long periods of time • Prosperity diminished intensity of conflict ◦ Although conflict a barrier to prosperity • Super federalism or Global Governance
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