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Intro to Psych - Personality and Self

by: Clairissa Cole

Intro to Psych - Personality and Self CLA PSY 101.011PRISM

Marketplace > Mercer University > CLA PSY 101.011PRISM > Intro to Psych Personality and Self
Clairissa Cole
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About this Document

These notes cover what personality is, the big five traits of personality, a history of Sigmund Freud, personality development, neo Freudians and assessing personality.
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Jarred Jenkins
Class Notes
Psychology, Freud, big five, components of the mind, ego. ID, Defense Mechanisms, neo Freudians.




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clairissa Cole on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CLA PSY 101.011PRISM at Mercer University taught by Dr. Jarred Jenkins in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views.


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Date Created: 02/12/16
Personality & Self Friday, February 5, 2016 5:00 PM  What is Personality? -set of traits that are unique and consistent patterns of thinking, behavior, and feeling -Environment, experiences , and genetics -> all play a role in personality.  What can affect personality? -Genetics and Temperament {no single gene assigned for personality trait , set of genes} : leads to variability and flexibility. - link to neurotransmitters -Shared Inheritance twin studies; tend to have similar personalities share about 40%-60% -Biological factors (Production/reuptake of neurotransmitters) Ex: if an individual has large production of serotonin may lead to resistance to depression, body can adjust.  Evolutionary Personality -Any benefits to various personality qualities? Ex. Bold vs Shy benefits in animals. -Sensation(thrill) seeking -What if easy distractibility? Any benefits? Ex. Benefit b/c easily attentive to changes in environment vs. someone who focuses in and is unaware of danger behind them. -Fitness => ability to survive and reproduce offspring. *nothing is entirely learned , genetic , or experienced in traits/personality.  BIG FIVE -scale used to asses personality -Tested with questions and answers on a scale (1-Strongly Disagree; 5-Strongly Agree), use reverse scoring to ensure participant is actively taking test. Initial researches started with 5000 traits from personality then boiled down to five traits : *use acronym OCEAN* O : Openness (to ideas) -how imaginative, creative someone is. How much they like new ideas. Ex: trying new foods, travelling independently C: Conscientiousness -planned, organized, hard-working, punctual, and ambitious someone is. ex: creating schedules, planners, 4-year plans E: Extraversion -sociable, talkative, engaging w/ people and desires to be. -Introverted(opposite) sometimeshave social anxiety. A : Agreeableness -how friendly, warm, trusting and good-natured someone is. - easy to get along with, not stubborn. N: Neuroticism -anxiety, impulsivity, self-conscious, vulnerability -comorbid - co-occurring w/ phobias , anxiety disorders, catastrophic thinking. Ex: the world is ending because earned 'C' on a test. Historical Explanations (Freud Background) Monday, February 8, 2016 5:00 PM • Sigmund Freud -focused on hysteria patients, believed hysteria came from sexual abuse in early childhood ages. -Used Psychoanalysis=> finding ways to get patients to reveal thoughts(tensions)in unconscious; very interested on meanings of dreams. -[most of his work was theoretical work-> not really research], revolutionizedtherapy -his theories were untestable because they were all based on unconscious thought. -used Free Associationwhen examining patients => where a client is asked to freely share thoughts, random words, and anything else that comes to mind. ▪ Levels of Awareness -Conscious -> Aware -Preconscious-> not immediatelyaware, but can access Ex: bringing up answer from question asked -Unconscious -> can't access past experiences or thoughts, are repressed in mind ○ Freudian Slips: replacing word with something actually meant in unconscious thought. (unconscious slips it in). *related to sex and relationships* Ex: news anchors slipping up and blurting out explicit word. Components of the Mind Monday, February 8, 2016 5:00 PM *not easily testable* *imagine an iceberg* ○ 3 Components 1.) ID : Pleasure Principle; starting point, child-like instincts, sexual drives, brings us pleasure (no delay/restraint)unconscious 2.) EGO : Reality Principle; societal constraints => achieve goals of ID, emerges as learned appropriateness. some conscious 3.) SUPER EGO : Moral Compass;guilt, rationalization for others good (good for society); manages balance between ID and EGO some conscious  a good a way to think of relationship between these three is the classic angel and devil on your shoulder, where the ID is the devil, you are the EGO and the angel is the SUPER EGO *when EGO experiences tension; it defaults to defense mechanism* ○ Freudian Defense Mechanisms 1. ) Repression - exclusion from consciousness of anxiety, producing ideas/thoughts. 2.) Regression- retreating to a behavior pattern associated with early developmentalstage Ex: acting like a baby 3.) Reaction Formation- behaving in a way that directly opposes urges Ex: a boy likes a girl and therefore picks on her because he doesn’t like his feelings toward her 4.) Denial - failure to process anxiety producing information Ex: student makes mostly C's but believes they are an A - student 5.) Projection- anxiety - producing characteristicsof self are projected onto others Ex: self-hate => turns inti hate to others 6.) Displacement- negative emotionsare directed at other things from cause of emotions. Ex: being upset about a test, might cause you to cuss someoneout. Psych Weekly Notes Page 3 Personality Development Wednesday, February 10, 2016 10:12 PM  The Psychosexual Stages : age related changes driven by sexual impulse areas on the body. [early childhood] -children must completeeach stage -if an individual doesn't completea certain stage, they become fixed at that stage (fixation at that stage).  Stage 1 : Oral => mouth is primary source of pleasure. [ 0 - 1yrs] Ex: babies explore the world with their mouth. --Oral fixation ; thumb sucking, chewing pens, cigarettes.  Stage 2 : Anal => developmentof elimination control [1 - 3yrs] Ex: children becoming potty trained. --Anal Retentive - very attentive and controlling.  Stage 3 : Phallic => Curiosity & Opposite-sexparents Ex: learning difference between their own and others genitalia -leads to potential of sexual attraction to opposite parent Freud proposed these anxieties in boys and girls: Boys - saw father as competitionfor attention of mother. They realize that they can't eliminate their fathers so, they develop a fear of him=> Castration Anxiety : fear that the father will find out about t=desires for the mother and castrate the boy. To combat this, the boys identify and create bonds with their fathers. Girls - have Penis Envy - which is having resentment towards their mother for bringing them into the world ill-equipped. To combat this, girls will create a bond with their mother and imitate their behaviors.  Stage 4 : Latency => repression of sexual impulses [6-12yrs] - identification with same -sex peers(boysplay with boys; girls play with girls), distance to avoid feelings of attraction associated with parents.  Stage 5 : Sexual Maturity Reached  Neo Freudians (after Freud)  Alfred Adler - Inferiority Complex -Feeling inferior in one aspect of life, so we overcompensate;driven by unconscious thought Ex: mid-life crisis => go and buy brand new car  Carl Jung - Collective Unconscious -Coined the terms [introvertand extrovert] -Supported Freud but created idea of collective unconscious: traits of personality because of power dynamics, evolutionaryconcepts etc, are passed down by generations.  Karen Horney - Impact of male-dominatedsociety - Wasn't comfortablewith penis envy, argued for male envy of female birth. -Studied negative results and impacts of a male dominated society.  The Humanists -more optimisticthought of humans. (do things not just for pleasure but for bettermentof ourselves)  Humans are unique and strive for personal growth  Humans are naturally good => may not know how to do so  Congruence' -ideal self: who you want to be -ideal self: who you want to be -realized self: who you actually are in the present  Carl Rogers' New Ideas of Therapy -believed in "clients", working with person to find sources of tension/issues => Client- Centered Therapy: working to get people to their ideal self. -There was a big disconnect if clients experienced Conditional PositiveRegard(love &support): if you do this, then you will get support. -Rogers wanted Unconditional PositiveRegard: no matter what your behavior is, I will still love and support you. Ex: Parents have to be careful with small children, and judge their behaviors and not the child themselves.(Tommy,you're annoying vs. Tommy,what you're doing is annoying)  AssessingPersonality  Observation and Interviewing are the best assessmentof personality. (hard for people to lie face to face) -100% Observationis great but not always doable. -Hard to do interviewswith sensitive information(sexhistory, drug use/abuse) so, we use anonymoussurveys for that specific information.  Personality Testing and Inventories -Ex: The Big Five personality traits -Likert Scales (numerical rating system) -Concerns of Self Respect -Validity(measure)& Reliability(consistency)Assessments  The Myers Briggs Type Indicator  -classify personality based on different traits (4 letters) -not strong validity, traits don’t always correspond -no predictive validity(can't truthfully tell you what job you will succeed in); may give basic description of behavior, changes each time take it.  ProjectiveTests (no fill out scales/surveys) -describing something put before you . Ex: inkblot test -not known for reliability or validity -when asked, 82% of psychologists used tests howeverthey used it just to assess what the -when asked, 82% of psychologists used tests howeverthey used it just to assess what the client thought about and engaged with, not used for diagnosis. Ex.ThematicApperception Test (TAT) -Picture is shown, clients describe the situation in the picture, and psychologists analyze the words they used (positive vs. negative words). \\\


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