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Population Ecology and Ch. 40

by: Amanda Notetaker

Population Ecology and Ch. 40 012

Marketplace > University of Vermont > Biomedical Engineering > 012 > Population Ecology and Ch 40
Amanda Notetaker
GPA 3.77

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About this Document

These notes cover population ecology and the beginning of chapter 40.
Exploring Biology
Dr. Hill
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Notetaker on Saturday April 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 012 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Hill in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Exploring Biology in Biomedical Engineering at University of Vermont.


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Date Created: 04/09/16
Population Ecology Ecology: The study of… - Ernest Haeckel (1869) came up with the word “ecology” o Oikos – house/home; “study of the household” - Vick’s definition: Economics of nature - Textbook: study of the relationships of organisms to their environment and one another  The Economics of Nature: - Based on distribution/abundance of organisms o Individual organisms o Populations of organisms o Communities of organisms Ecology vs. Evolution Ecologists & Evolutionary Ecologists: look to understand/explain processes that determine the  distribution, diversity, and abundance of organisms Ecologists: Evolutionary Ecologists: Look for proximate answers for diversity,  Look for ultimate answers for diversity,  distribution, and abundance of organisms distribution, and abundance of organisms  Ex: Why did the chicken cross the road? A: To get away from a predator, find food,  A: migration pattern of the chicken went  or find a mate across the road, appendages carry it across  the road, inclination to cross roads Ex: Colorado Potato Beetle is a pest in America (lg. population), not Mexico (sm. population) Proximate Causes: Ultimate Causes: - Pest Status: based on food  - Pest Status: evolved to process  availability, predation potatoes or endure cold conditions - Population Size: large amt of food  - Population Size: evolved to live in  increases population; potatoes less  regions where natural enemies  defended cannot survive Ecology: Changes in numbers of individuals or  populations in ecosystems over a few  Evolution: (Macroevolution) generations Changes in traits in populations  - Scope: Populations or individuals  over many generations within habitats - Scope: Traits within populations - Timescale: Days/Years - Timescale: Larger time frames Ecology  Evolution Evolutionary change  changes in ecology  evolves abilities to survive differently Invasive Species: dispersal limitation Factors limiting Geographic Distribution - Dispersal - Behavior (Habitat selection) - Biotic factors (Other species, predation, competition, disease) - Abiotic factors (Chemical/physical) Density: number of individuals per unit area or volume - Often impractical/impossible to count all individuals in a population - Sampling techniques used to estimate densities/total population size Mark­Recapture Method: scientists capture, tag, and release random sample of individuals (m) in a population - Marked individuals are given time to mix back into the population - Scientists capture second sample of individuals (n) and note how many of them are  marked (x) - Population size (N) is estimated by: N = mn / x because m / N = x / n - Ex: Scientist marked 180 dolphins and waited a few days to mix them. He observed 44  dolphins the second time, 7 of which were marked. m = 180 So N = (180) (44) / 7 = 1131 n = 44 x = 7 Density is the results of interplay between processes that add individuals to a population and  those that remove individuals  Immigration: influx of new individuals from other areas Emigration: movement of individuals out of a population Dispersion: pattern of spacing among individuals within the boundaries of a population  (clumped, uniform, random) Exponential Growth: (growth without limits) N: Population size d N d T  r N R: Intrinsic rate of natural increase (= birth rate – death rate) dN/dT: Rate of change in population size Logistic Growth: (growth with limited resources) dN (K−N) =rN K: Carrying capacity   dt K CH. 40  Behavior Behavior: Response to a stimulus Environmental Change  Stimulus - Adjustments of behavior are often the most visible responses to environmental change - Ex: Many migratory animals change timing of migrations in response to climate change 40.1: Behavior is Controlled by the Nervous System but is Not Necessarily Deterministic An animal’s nervous system activates/coordinates behaviors: - Fixed Action Patterns: highly stereotyped animal behaviors that are expressed without  prior learning; often resistant to modification by learning o Ex: begging behavior of gull chicks peck at red dot on bills; spiders’ web spinning - Ex: The ultimate cause of what the male three­spined stickleback attacks other males  entering his nesting territory is to increase their reproductive ability - Behaviors evolve: Natural selection favors the alleles that produce more adaptive  behaviors than others o Many studies show that genes exert important effects on behavior o Ex: In Drosophila mutants for gene per altered circadian rhythms o - Biological Determinism: behaviors of animals are hardwired by genetics; individual’s  genes change neural properties in fixed ways that affect behavior o Behavior is more flexible than any other biological trait b/c learning modifies  behavior  o Epigenetic effects on behavior  lifelong influences; can be transmitted to next  generation o Ex: Clams are inflexible in many of their responses to their environment 40.2: Behavior is Influenced by Development and Learning Learning: ability of individual to modify its behaviors as a consequence of individual  experiences - Ex: Experiments with mice show that they learn layout/hiding places of their  environment, learning that helps them escape predation by screech owls.  - Learning is taught through patterns of recognition, whereas fixed action pattern is not Behavioral Imprinting: type of learning that is taught; takes place within a narrow window of  time early in postnatal life and after is inflexible - Can have lifelong consequences  - Examples o Geese imprint on their true parents and species to establish a strong attraction;  o Species­specific songs of Darwin’s finches used to attract females;  o Hungry adult offspring of “low­caring” mothers wait longer than those of “high­ caring” mothers to go to food and spend less time eating food - Key regulatory genes in stress­response biochemical/hormonal pathways are tagged with  epigenetic marks early on in life permanently altering their stress responses - Malnutrition/abandonment early on in life affects epigenetic tagging in rats  40.3: Behavior is Integrated with the Rest of Function - Pronghorn have the highest sustained speeds in running animals o Can deliver O2 to muscles at high rates o Use O2 at high rates to make ATP in muscle cells o Use ATP at high rates to perform intense muscular work o Exceptionally large lungs/skeletal muscles, and muscle cells are tightly packed  with mitochondria - Escape behavior is dependent upon ATP synthesis o Aerobic ATP is slow and resists fatigue o Anaerobic ATP is fast but subject to fast fatigue o Ex: Toads evolved enzymes for aerobic ATP production in legs whereas frogs  evolved them for anaerobic ATP production, and therefore, leap away faster - Behaviors are dependent upon body size/growth o Ex: Tonal frequencies of insects’ songs vary based on body size; larger body   low frequency song o Some species must grow to adult size before developing reproductive behaviors 40.4: Moving through Space Presents Distinctive Challenges Navigation: act of moving toward a destination or along a course - Trail following o Pheromone: chemical compound/mix of compounds emitted into outside  environment by individuals of a species and elicits behavioral responses from  other members of same species o Can use pheromones to attract members of opposite sex - Path Integration o Monitors length/compass direction of each segment and integrates the information about segment lengths/directions to determine where it is relative to its nest Orientation: adopting a position or path of locomotion relative to an environmental cue such as  the sun - Sun Compass: determine where N, S, E, W are by observing sun o Ex: Pigeons observe position of the sun and also know the time of day to calculate direction using circadian clock; on cloudy days they detect Earth’s magnetic field  to orient to - Many insects determine compass direction by detecting patterns of polarized light in sky o Depends on photoreceptors - Honey bee workers’ “Waggle Dance” o When worker bee finds flowers it returns to hive to communicate the path using  the dance based on measurements taken of distance and direction to the flowers o Measures distance by monitoring rate flying past landmarks o Measures direction by monitoring the angle of flight relative to the compass  position of the sun o If cloudy, they use atmospheric polarization patterns to determine position of sun - Migration: move periodically from one location to another to remain for a substantial  period of time and later return from o Ex: Sea turtles use Earth’s magnetic field to orient themselves 40.5: Social Behavior is Widespread Society: group of individuals of a single species organized to some degree in a cooperative  manner Social Behavior: behaviors of individuals that integrate them into societies and the group  behaviors of entire societies - Disadvantages o Grouping makes animals more visible o diseases spread more rapidly o resources are depleted more rapidly - Advantages of Equal Status o Enhanced awareness of environment (Ex: Goshawk’s success in capturing  pigeons decreases as number of pigeons in flock increase) o Discover preferred environments more efficiently  - Advantages of Differing Statuses o Dominates: “wins” one­on­one behavioral contests with others; has greatest  chance of mating with adult females in group o Reasons above o Process of becoming dominant serves as a test of male’s strength, endurance,  properties for success therefore females that mate with it ensure that their  offspring are genetically well developed - Eusociality: social structure in which some members of social group are non­ reproductive and assist reproduction of fertile members of group, usually mother o Mostly in insects o Exemplify Altruism: any characteristic of an individual that imposes a cost on  that individual while aiding another 40.6: Behavior Helps Structure Ecological Communities and Processes - Behavior helps maintain species - Behaviorally partition space into territories o Territory: region occupied by an individual that actively keeps others of same  species out o Home Range: other individuals aren’t excluded o Provide familiarity (escape route, resources, etc) Cost­Benefit Approach: Assumes an animal has only a limited amount of time/energy and  therefore cannot afford to engage in behaviors that cost more to perform than they bring benefits


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