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HDFS notes 6

by: Camryn McCabe

HDFS notes 6 HDFS 129

Marketplace > HDFS 129 > HDFS notes 6
Camryn McCabe
Penn State
GPA 3.81

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About this Document

notes from 2/10 continued notes of attachment + notes on temperament
Intro to HDFS
Molly Countermine
Class Notes
HDFS, attachment, temperament
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camryn McCabe on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 129 at a university taught by Molly Countermine in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views.


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Date Created: 02/12/16
HDFS notes 6 Attachment & Temperament Categories of Attachment (What was determined about the kids from the Strange Situation experiment from notes 5)  Securely attached: 55-60% of children o Use mother as secure base o Exhibit distress at mother leaving and stop exploration o Seek contact during reunion  Insecurely attached – avoidant: 15-20% of children o Rarely cry during separation o Avoid mother at reunion o Indifferent to or dislike physical contact; fail to cling  Insecurely attached – ambivalent: 10% of children o Ambivalent = conflicted o Distressed during separation o Yet not comforted by mother during reunion o May be angry and hit/push mother  Insecurely attached – disorganized o Show confusion; freezing behavior o Highly correlated with abuse/neglect Parenting behaviors & attachment security (Type of parenting that usually results in each type of attachment) o Secure children: parent has warm, responsive, consistent, contingent, lots of physical contact o Parent responds/reacts to child right away o Avoidant children: parents are consistently insensitive o Less physical contact o Ambivalent children: inconsistent parenting o Sometimes warm, sometimes not o Parent may be unsure/awkward o Disorganized children: parent may abuse/neglect o Too much screen time (for the parent) Outcomes (How children of different types of attachments turn out) o Secure o Less dependent on teachers in preschool o More cooperative; peaceful, peacemakers o Responsive to friends’ requests o Insecure o More dependent on teachers o Behavior problems; aggressive with peers o More withdrawn HDFS notes 6 Attachment & Temperament Can an infant form multiple attachments? Yes, but there are some conditions… 1. They are highly selective in their choices of attachment figures 2. Not all social relationships can be identified as attachments 3. Not all attachment figures are equally as important Temperament o Refers to an innate style of responding to the environment o An infant has a distinct temperament in the first few days and weeks of life that is independent of parenting style Aspects 1. Activity level 2. Rhythmicity (predictability of bodily functions- eat, sleep, bathroom) 3. Approach/withdrawal (when presented w/something new, do they approach it or withdrawal?) 4. Adaptability (go with the flow or rigid?) 5. Threshold of responsiveness (how much does it take to get a response?) 6. Intensity of reaction (ex. How much you laugh at jokes) 7. General mood (happy, sad, irritable, etc.) 8. Focus/attention span Categories of temperament o Easy (40% of children) o Approach new events, people, toys, etc. positively o React to novelty in a non-distressed way o Regular in eating and sleeping patterns o Generally cheerful and happy (Buddha babies) o Make parents look like good parents o Slow-to-warm (15% of children) o Withdraw form new events, people, toys, etc. o Uneasy with novelty o Lower activity levels o Somewhat fussy o Difficult (10% of children) o React negatively and vigorously to novelty o Generally irritable HDFS notes 6 Attachment & Temperament o Tend to have high activity levels o Irregular in eating and sleeping patterns o Make parents look like bad parents o The rest (35% of children) o Have mixed characteristics and cannot be classified Is temperament stable? Yes and no o Development (simply getting older) and environment may heighten, diminish, or otherwise alter reactions to the environment Goodness of Fit o Creating a child-rearing environment that recognizes child’s temperament and encourages adaptive functioning o This is the parents’ responsibility o The child cannot change their temperament o Good parenting involves structuring child’s environment to suit child’s temperament o Easy baby: easy parenting o Difficult baby: needs parent to be non-punitive, not harsh, patient, consistent o Slow-to-warm baby: needs parent to be patient, low-key, allow child to adapt at their own pace Reciprocal Influences o Individual influences/is influences by his/her environment o Relationship between parents affects the way a parent relates to the child Marital relationship Parenting Child behavior o Difficult babies are at risk for developing an insecure attachment o Because parents are less likely to be sensitive HDFS notes 6 Attachment & Temperament o UNLESS, parents of difficult babies view them as challenging rather than difficult Longitudinal study of temperament Capsi, 2000 o Children were studied from birth  21 yr. o Measured participants 9 times across the span o 1037 kids, 97% retention rate (that’s a lot) o Representative sample (gender, race, SES) o Subjective o Given psychological test, interviews with participants, parents teachers o Objective o Direct observations Results o Difficult kids o Age 3: irritable, impulsive, moody, difficulty staying on task, behavioral problems o Age 18: aggression, impulsive, angry, conflict in interpersonal relationships o Age 21: conflict in friendships and romantic relationships; unreliable, more likely to have substance abuse problems and to have been fired from a job o Slow-to-warm kids o Age 3: shy, fearful, not at ease in new situations, uncomfortable w/strangers o Age 18: over-controlled, cautious, non-assertive; followers rather than leaders o Age 21: lower levels of social support; anxious, more likely to be depressed, less engagement in the world o Easy kids o Age 3: getting along well with peers and teachers o Age 18: doing well in school; good friendships, leaders o Age 21: well-adjusted, happy, successful friendships and romantic relationships Does this mean temperament is stable? o Studies show mixed results o Hard to measure temperament in adults o Relative v. absolute terms (have to think about it this way) HDFS notes 6 Attachment & Temperament o Consistency of temperament depends in part on fit between a child’s nature and a parent’s nature o A child’s temperament and parents’ responses to the child interact to produce particular outcomes o


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