Diversity II Notes Week 4
Diversity II Notes Week 4 211
Popular in Diversity of Life II
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Foreign Language
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 211 at Syracuse University taught by Justine Weber in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life II in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
Reviews for Diversity II Notes Week 4
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/12/16
Diversity of Life II Notes Week 4 2/9/16 Protists – Part II Alveolate Protists, continued Ciliophora (cilia = Latin for ‘eyelash’) 3,400 described and possibly 8000+ undescribed species Habitat common in marine, brackish/fresh waters, even damp soils free swimming or sessile (stationary) some live inside other organisms Morphology (shared features) – many diverse forms cilia (at least in some life stages) Pellicle of alveolar vesicles and fibrous layer – helps maintain shape 2 types of nuclei: Macronucleus – hyperpolyploid Micronucleus – diploid, synergistic DNA associated with reproduction stores glycogen as carbohydrates No plastids – a few species will sequester plastids from their prey (e.g. chloroplasts) and use them for themselves Ecology Nutrition some endosymbionts in ruminants some parasitic, seen in fish and mammals most freeliving and engulf food in cytostome cell mouth designed for engulfing and digesting materials, usually in the shape of a funnel or groove May be solitary or colonial Examples Paramecium (unicellular) – has flattened sacs that help maintain shape; cilia also used for propelling Didinium – has cytopharynx that everts; adheres to (larger) prey then draws them in into vacuoles Ex. can engulf Paramecium much larger than itself Stentor – can retain chloroplasts from other organisms sessile but has stalk that is adjustable in length Bursaria truncatella – relatively large in open oceans; cilia found around Carchesium (colonial) Euplotes – has cilia projections, can ‘crawl’ on surface Life Cycle and Reproduction Binary fission (asexual) – equal daughter cells in colonials, but not forms are solitary Conjugation mating types (with genetic recombination) individuals of the same mating type cannot conjugate sexual reproduction occurs Apicomplexa (apex = top; complexus = infolds) 5,000 – 6,000 described species Habitat and Nutrition Endoparasites in animals ALL of them; have negative effects in animals and people locomotion via gliding Morphology some features have been reduced possibly because of parasitic nature Apical complex – unique combination of organelles at cell’s anterior attaches to host; host membrane will accept and take in the parasite inner membrane complex (alveoli) no plastids microspores, tiny invaginations; site of nutrient uptake from host cells General Lifecycle and reproduction – 3phases, may be 1 or 2 hosts Sexual phase – gametes produced and fuse into zygotes Sporeforming phase sporozite infective, enters host stage Growth phase – merozoites repeated asexual division with some transforming When there are 2 hosts: Definitive host – mature parasite that has reached adulthood Vector – intermediate host, transfers parasite from 1 host to another Ecology and other lifecycles Examples Gregarines (1000+ described species collected from mainly insects) – parasites in guts or body cavities of several kinds of invertebrates (arthropods and annelids), generally only 1 host (no cycling) Coccideans – parasites of warmblooded vertebrates (Ex. Toxoplasma gondii) many are pathogenic coccidiosis in rabbits, cats, and birds – caused by parasites in intestinal tract usually speciesspecific can cause bloody diarrhea, weight loss, and high mortality rate of young toxoplasmosis (1/3 of humans may currently be infected) no initial symptoms, but can cause problems if immunocomprimised found in cats, but no apparent major symptoms vector Hematozoa – malaria – Plasmodium – very serious blood parasite Archaeplastida (contains Plantae – land plants) plastid structure (2 membranes) and genome mitochondria with flat cristae no centrioles protein coding genes support monophyletic group store starch nucelear/cytostolic lineage Chlorophyta – “green algae”; phylogeny currently under revision Ex. Chlamydomonas Habitat and Nutrition photosynthetic major component of biomass in open water and benthos of freshwater systems some marine, some on wet soils, snow; lichens Morphology cell wall comprised of cellulose may or may not possess flagella (08) Unicellular or colonial – simple filaments pigments chlorophylls a and b; some carotenoids and carotenes store starch many elements of morphology similar to fossil genera Ecology and examples Spirogyra – spiral chloroplasts hangs around ion water using filaments in water (benthic/pelagic mats) Order Volvocales – Chlamydomonas, Gonium, Pandorina, Volvox Volvocine Series demonstrates evolution of multicellularity Certain cells are responsible for reproduction Common in calm water and ponds Desmids – 2 mirrorimage half cells often sensitive to high salinity, but tolerate acid conditions thousands of species often indicators of different conditions also likely in charophycae 2/11/16 Cladophora – nuisance species exists as filamentous goo on shoreline, dense mounds underwater previously stimulated by increase in nutrient deposits, but passed decrees limited discarded nutrients increase in invasive Mollusca and mussels aided recovery some are large, types of ‘seaweed’ (e.g. Codium) common coastal species Rhodophyta – red algae (rhodon = rose) Habitat and Nutrition photosynthetic, ALL of them most marine, common seaweeds on coast; some freshwater in cold, clean streams indicator species Morphology shared plastid with unique features; chlorophylls a and d; phycobilins as pigments, phycoerythrin (red pigment) store starch and cell wall is made of cellulose, similar to Chlorophytes no flagella in any stage, not even gametes branching patterns often used to distinguish species, especially before genetic analysis contain some calcerous deposits in makeup, makes them tough and flexible waveresistance, distasteful to predators Ex. Rhodochorton, Batrachospermum Ecology and Uses Aquaculture – ‘red dulse’ Palmaria palmata dried and eaten in Europe, Asia, Ireland, Canada, and US rich in vitamins, trace elements interest in growing and collecting in intertidal zones Porphyra species – nori, Sushi Calcareous red algae helps harden shoreline, forms crust on surface to prevent coral reef erosion Protists – Part III Excavata – large, diverse group feeding groove structure (“excavated”) mitochondrial structure flagella structure (ancestral structure; some have lost them) mode of mitosis united by molecular phylogeny Euglenozoa some freeliving – photosynthetic, predatory, or both (mixotrophic) found in surface sediments, in water some parasitic or commensal Euglenids (aka euglenoids) Habitat freeliving; aquatic or wet sediments, and a few marine species Morphology similarities in cell structure (mitochondria, nucleus, organelle) usually 2 flagella if photosynthetic, similar chloroplast (from green alga via secondary endosymbiosis): chlorophylls a, b, and carotenoids if photosynthetic, has eyespot to help find and get to light source Pellicle – protein strips under plasma membrane, used to constrict and widen the cell; works with flagella in locomotion Ecology can consume bacteria or eukaryotes, or take up dissolved organic material; some also photosynthesize (euglenophyta) with chloroplasts Life Cycle and Reproduction so far sexual reproduction has not been reported; only asexual seen by mitosis Examples and oddities – wide range of cell sizes Euglena – most common member Phacus – flatter and rounder newly discovered toxin production in 1 species many are extremophiles (e.g. anoxin) Kinetoplastids – 600 described species Habitat either a few free living or obligatory parasites Morphology kinetoplast – circular DNA inside large mitochondrion Ecology many parasitic lineages Life cycle and Reproduction at least 12 flagella at some lifestage Examples and oddities Trypanosomes – parasites in digestive tracts of inverts, phloem of plants and blood of vertebrates many human diseases (Trypanosome species) African sleeping sickness – transmitted by tsetse fly, enters lymphatic system and cerebrospinal fluid; causes lethargy, drowsiness Chagas disease – thought to have infected Darwin, spread by “kissing bugs” Bodonids – Bodo – freeliving relative in marine systems; most eat bacteria Parabasilida – ~450species; many are benign, but not all Habitat symbiotic or parasitic with animals Morphology clustered flagella at anterior end with distinct basal body structure; lack mitochondria and feeding groove Ecology –anaerobic Examples and oddities Parasites – trichomonads – Trichomonas vaginalis – found in genital tracts or people, very transmissible; very treatable but only ~30% of people show symptoms Symbiotes – hypermastigids – commensal in some insects; help digest cellulose seen in termites & roaches, helps to break down trees and houses Percolozoa most alternate between flagellate and amoeboid forms Ex. Naegleria fowleri (“Braineating Amoeba!”) can be infected by swimming/bathing in contaminated water (likes warmer temperatures); not seen in colder water encysts amoeba tough to treat foreign eukaryotes, easier with foreign bacteria; symptoms 57 days after exposure, death 714 days later Amoebozoa (group is currently in revision, may be split) ramicristate tubular mitochondria lobose amoebae – blunt, fingerlike projections generally no flagellated stages Amoebidae Habitat very abundant, wide range some are commensal, others parasitic, and many are freeliving in water, soil some obligate pathogens, seen in animals and humans Ecology and examples Freeliving naked amoeba – engulf other organisms or dead organic matter (detritus) Amoeba Chaos Parasitic or commensal Entamoeba – human examples seen in mouth, colon can cause dysentery loss of electrolyte balance Hydrameoba – parasite of Hydra Shelled, ‘testate’ amoeba (arcellanids) – makes a ‘case’ of other materials in environment (see caddisflies) Difflugia Stramenopila; aka heterokonts, ~9,000 described species General Characteristics plastids, when present, are from secondary endosymbiosis with a red alga; chlorophylls a and c and brown accessory pigment (fucoxanthin) Similar flagellar form at some stage of life cycle (‘straw hair’) – can be hairy, hairless, or ½ and ½ Chrysophytes (Chrysophyceae) “Golden Algae” Habitat aquatic, both marine and freshwater Morphology naked cells or cellulose cell wall; may have silica/mineral intrusions to solidify cells may or may not have flagella; 12 if present Ecology and examples photosynthetic with some mixotrophic good fossilization (silica plates) makes for good indicator species of nutrients in water Ex. check prehistoric O 2 vels in sediments Synura Dinobryon lorica of cellulose mixotrophic diploid zygote resting stage Mallomonas Diatoms (Class Bacillariophyceae) – variety of forms Habitat aquatic, marine and freshwater phytoplankton Morphology frustule (case) – made of silica with 2 valves Petri dish Life Cycle and Reproduction reduction in average cell size with asexual reproduction; division of 2 valves causes decrease in average size of members (fewer nutrients available) when a certain minimum size is reached, sexual reproduction occurs and will restore original size sexual reproduction – auxospore Ecology, examples and uses bilaterally (pinnate) or centrally (centric) symmetrical, from top view diatomaceous earth (fossilized bodies of diatoms) Opal body fatty acids, seen in fish oils Nutritious domoic acid amino acid that can kill many organisms Ex. Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) seen in harmful algal blooms Actinochrysophyceae (‘heliozoans’) Habitat freshwater and soil, lakes and ponds Morphology pseudopodia – axopodia, radiating stiff arms no known flagellated stage Ecology feed on phytoplankton, heterotrophic protists and bacteria Ex. Actinosphaerium Phaeophycea (brown algae) Habitat generally marine and benthic, common in intertidal/subtidal areas, and a few pelagic species seen in rocky shoreline areas Ecology photosynthetic; macroalgae (seaweeds) Morphology differentiation into structures with certain functions, can get quite large Reproduction alternation of generations haploid/diploid Examples and Uses kelp, very large forests seen along US west coast Bullwhip kelp, Nereocystis Ectocarpus – small, common in NY produce thickeners interest in biofuels Fucus – has ‘bladders’ that act as buoys; small and common in NYS harvested in some places for food
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'