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Chapter 5

by: Brittany Woody

Chapter 5 EXP3604

Brittany Woody

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Lecture and book notes
Cognitive Psychology
Dr. Stagner
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Woody on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXP3604 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Stagner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.

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Date Created: 02/12/16
Module 5: Short-Term and Working Memory Lecture and Book notes - Memory: processes involved in retaining, retrieving, and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas and kills after the original information is no longer present - Memory is active any time some past experience has an impact on how you think or behave now or in the future - Atkinson and Shriffin: Modal model of memory: called modal because it contains features of men of the memory models that were being proposed at the time three different types • Sensory memory: initial stage that holds all incoming information for seconds or fractions of a second • Short-term memory: holds five to seven items for about 15 to 20 seconds (repeating a phone number long enough to dial it then forgetting it) • Long-term memory: can hold a large amount of information for years or decades - Control processes: active processes that can be controlled by the person • Rehearsal: practicing information to help remember • Strategies used to make a stimulus more memorable (associating it with something else) • Strategies of attention that help you focus on specific stimuli - Sensory memory: the retention, for brief periods of time, of the effects of sensory stimulation • Information decays very quickly • Persistence of vision: retention of perception of light; Sparkler’s trail of light on Fourth of July • Holds large amount of information for a short period of time • Collects information from environment • Holds information for initial processing 1 • Fills in blanks - Measuring the capacity and duration of sensory memory: Sperling, 1960; flashed an array of letters quickly on a screen; participants asked to report as many as possible (called “whole report method”), 4.5 out of 12 letters (37.5%) were seen on average • Partial report method: focus only on one row; heard a tone that told them which row of letters to report; average of 3.3 out of 4 letters (82%); participants could report any of the rows • Delayed partial report method: presentation of the tone delayed for a fraction of a second after the letters were extinguished; performance decrease rapidly • This experiment uses iconic memory: brief sensory memory of things we see; responsible for persistence of vision - Echoic memory: brief sensory memory of things we hear; responsible for persistence of sound - Short-term memory: stores small amounts of information for a brief duration; includes both new information received from the sensory stores and information recalled from long-term memory; about 15-20 seconds when rehearsal is prevented - Miller's (1956) Magic number 7 (plus or minus two) provides evidence for the capacity of short term memory. Most adults can store between 5 and 9 items in their short-term memory. This idea was put forward by Miller and he called it the magic number 7 - Measuring duration of short-term memory: participants read three letters then a number, then begin counting down by three, then asked to recall the three letters; after 3 seconds of counting, participants performed at 80%; at 18 seconds, participants performed at 10% • reduction in performance is explained by the existence of decay, which is the vanishing of a memory trace due to the passage of time and exposure to competing stimuli - Proactive interference: occurs when information learned pervasively interferes with learning new information; your native language may make it more difficult to learn and remember a new foreign language - Retroactive interference: occurs when new learning interferes with remembering old learning; after you get a new phone number, you may have a difficult time remembering your old phone number 2 - Capacity of short-term memory: • digit span: how many digits can a person remember? typical result is 5-8 items; items usually single digits • Chunking: small units can be combined into larger meaningful units; a chunk is a collection of elements that are strongly associated with each other and weakly associated with element soft other chunks - Ericson study: trained a college student with average memory ability to use chunking; initial digit span of 7; after 230 one-hour training sessions, the student could remember up to 79 digits by chunking them into meaningful units - Working memory: similar concept to short-term memory: limited capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning; damage to prefrontal cortex affects the ability to remember for short periods of time • differs from short term memory because it is concerned with processing and manipulation of information during complex tasks, not just holding information - Working memory has phonological loop, central executive, and visuospatial sketch pad - Experiments with monkeys: the nerve firing records show that the neuron was firing during the delay - Phonological similarity effect: words and letters that sound similar are easily confused - Word-length effect: memory of lists of words is better for short words then for long words; takes longer to rehearse long words and to produce them during recall - Articulatory suspension: prevents one from rehearsing items to be remembered; having participants speak a nonsensical language to prevent rehearsal; reduces memory span eliminates word-length effect and phonological similarity effect - Visuospatial sketch pad: visual imagery: creation of visual imagery in the mind in the absence of a physical visual stimulus; mental rotation task: participant imagines rating objects to match other objects; task with more rotation needed takes longer to perform - Working memory is set up to process different types of information simultaneously; but has trouble when similar types of information are presented at the same time 3 - Central executive: attention controlled; focuses, divides, and switches attention; surpasses irrelevant information - Episodic buffer: backup store that communicated with long term memory and working memory; holds information longer than working memory and has greater capacity than phonological loop and visuospatial sketch pad - 4


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