BIOL 120 Week 2 Notes
BIOL 120 Week 2 Notes Biol 120-001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Delaluz on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 120-001 at Towson University taught by Prof Partain in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at Towson University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
BIOL 120 Principles of Biology (Dr. Partain) Week 2 Notes (2/82/12) By Julia Delaluz Nucleic Acids DNA: o Deoxyribonucleic acid o Stores hereditary info of all living cells o Has a phosphatesugar backbone RNA: o Ribonucleic acid o Helps in processing and use of info stored in DNA o Helps cells synthesize proteins Basically, just helps DNA Made from nucleotides (monomer!) A C G T (or U) Transmits genetic info from 1 generation to the next 4 Differences Between DNA and RNA o Function o Nucleotides o # of strands o sugars Cells The basic unit of life Cell Theory: 1. All known living things are made up of cells 2. The cell is a structural and functional unit of all living things 3. All cells come from preexisting cells by division Prokaryotic Cell: has DNA but no nucleus o Domain Bacteria, Archaea Eukaryotic Cell: o Domain Eukarya Parts of a Cell: o Plasma Membrane Hydrophillic on outside, hydrophobic on inside Phospholipid bilayer Function: protection and communication In every living thing (prokaryotic & Eukaryotic) o Nucleus Function: protects DNA Everything has this except bacteria o Ribosomes Function: protein production Everything has it o Mitochondria Function: creates energy (ATP) Powerhouse of the cell Found in everything except bacteria o Lysosomes Function: cell cleaners, recyclers, digesters Found in animals and some plants o Chloroplasts Function: site of photosynthesis Found in plants and some bacteria o Cytoskeletal Elements Function: structure and movement (made of protein) Everything has it o Cell Wall Function: provides structure Found in everything except animals Animal vs. Plant Cells Plants have chloroplasts and cell walls, animals do NOT *Passive Transport: o NO ATP required o Solvent moves with concentration gradient Simple diffusion (osmosis) Facilitated diffusion requires ATP *Active Transport: o ATP required o Solvent moves against concentration gradient Exocytosis – exit, requires ATP Endocytosis – entering, requires ATP For large molecules (don’t need to know!!!)Endocytosis: for even larger molecules, foods or liquids Phagocytosis: takes in food particles Pinocytosis: takes in liquid particles (already dissolved food) Receptor mediated endocytosis neurotransmitters 2/10/16 need a scantron for test Monday *Metabolism All the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy. Needs… o 1. Water: acts as solvent o 2. Enzymes: controls all reactions o 3. Calories: provides fuel for reactions *Digestion The breakdown of food products into smaller and simpler compounds. Needs… o 1. Macronutrients: not going to ask what they are (water, lipids, carbs) o 2. Micronutrients: (vitamins, minerals, antioxidants) o 3. Enzymes *Respiration Series of metabolic reactions where glucose is broke down and energy is released for use by the cell and life processes, more than just breathing o 1. Oxygen: keeps respiration moving, without oxygen, respiration stops, no energy is generated. Death within minutes! o 2. Glucose: most common requirement o 3. Enzymes [ATP (don’t need to know but here it is anyway)] Adenosine triphosphate Where is the energy stored? o The negatively charged phosphates of ATP are unstable like charges repel o It took energy to build the bonds that put them together o When the bonds are broken, the stored energy is released o ATP releases one of its phosphate and becomes ADP (adenosine dihospahe energy, this releases 7.3 kcal o This is a continuous cycle *Enzymes Require: o Specific temperature – if temp is too high, enzyme breaks down o Vitamins: necessary in order to function In Class Review Passive Transport o Hydrogen wants to be equal o Go from high to low concentration o So, going with concentration gradient o NO ATP passive, simple (osmosis) If a protein is added, it is now facilitated diffusion Still does not need ATP! Active Transport o Moving from low to high concentration (get more acid in stomach) o Requires ATP o Active transport o Difference btw active transport and facilitated diffusion? Active needs ATP, facilitated doesn’t Respiration o Where does it happen? Mitochondria o Takes in O2, glucose o Puts out CO2, H2O, ATP o Requires Enzymes, glucose, oxygen Exact opp of photosynthesis Photosynthesis takes in CO2, H2O & sunlight, puts out O2 & glucose
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