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BIOL 120 Week 2 Notes

by: Julia Delaluz

BIOL 120 Week 2 Notes Biol 120-001

Julia Delaluz
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

These notes cover everything we've learned in class from 2/8-2/12. Happy studying!
General Biology
Prof Partain
Class Notes
BIOL 120, Principles of biology, Dr. Partain, Biology, Science, towson, notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Delaluz on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 120-001 at Towson University taught by Prof Partain in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at Towson University.

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Date Created: 02/12/16
BIOL 120 Principles of Biology (Dr. Partain) Week 2 Notes (2/8­2/12) By Julia Delaluz Nucleic Acids    DNA: o Deoxyribonucleic acid o Stores hereditary info of all living cells o Has a phosphate­sugar backbone    RNA: o Ribonucleic acid o Helps in processing and use of info stored in DNA o Helps cells synthesize proteins  Basically, just helps DNA   Made from nucleotides (monomer!) A C G T (or U)  Transmits genetic info from 1 generation to the next  4 Differences Between DNA and RNA o Function o Nucleotides o # of strands o sugars Cells  The basic unit of life    Cell Theory: 1. All known living things are made up of cells 2. The cell is a structural and functional unit of all living things 3. All cells come from pre­existing cells by division  Prokaryotic Cell: has DNA but no nucleus o Domain­ Bacteria, Archaea  Eukaryotic Cell: o Domain­ Eukarya  Parts of a Cell: o Plasma Membrane  Hydrophillic on outside, hydrophobic on inside  Phospholipid bilayer  Function: protection and communication  In every living thing (prokaryotic & Eukaryotic) o Nucleus  Function: protects DNA  Everything has this except bacteria o Ribosomes  Function: protein production  Everything has it o Mitochondria  Function: creates energy (ATP)  Powerhouse of the cell  Found in everything except bacteria o Lysosomes  Function: cell cleaners, recyclers, digesters  Found in animals and some plants o Chloroplasts  Function: site of photosynthesis  Found in plants and some bacteria o Cytoskeletal Elements  Function: structure and movement (made of protein)  Everything has it o Cell Wall  Function: provides structure  Found in everything except animals Animal vs. Plant Cells  Plants have chloroplasts and cell walls, animals do NOT  *Passive Transport: o NO ATP required o Solvent moves with concentration gradient  Simple diffusion (osmosis)   Facilitated diffusion­ requires ATP  *Active Transport: o ATP required o Solvent moves against concentration gradient  Exocytosis – exit, requires ATP  Endocytosis – entering, requires ATP  For large molecules  (don’t need to know!!!)Endocytosis: for even larger  molecules, foods or liquids  Phagocytosis: takes in food particles  Pinocytosis: takes in liquid particles (already dissolved  food)  Receptor mediated endocytosis­ neurotransmitters 2/10/16­ need a scantron for test Monday *Metabolism  All the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy. Needs… o 1. Water: acts as solvent o 2. Enzymes: controls all reactions o 3. Calories: provides fuel for reactions *Digestion The breakdown of food products into smaller and simpler compounds. Needs… o 1. Macronutrients: not going to ask what they are (water, lipids, carbs) o 2. Micronutrients: (vitamins, minerals, antioxidants) o 3. Enzymes *Respiration Series of metabolic reactions where glucose is broke down and energy is released for use  by the cell and life processes, more than just breathing o 1. Oxygen: keeps respiration moving, without oxygen, respiration stops, no  energy is generated. Death within minutes! o 2. Glucose: most common requirement o 3. Enzymes [ATP (don’t need to know but here it is anyway)]  Adenosine triphosphate  Where is the energy stored? o The negatively charged phosphates of ATP are unstable ­ like charges repel o It took energy to build the bonds that put them together o When the bonds are broken, the stored energy is released o ATP releases one of its phosphate and becomes ADP (adenosine dihospahe energy, this releases  7.3 kcal o This is a continuous cycle *Enzymes  Require:  o Specific temperature – if temp is too high, enzyme breaks down o Vitamins: necessary in order to function In Class Review  Passive Transport o Hydrogen wants to be equal o Go from high to low concentration o So, going with concentration gradient o NO ATP­ passive, simple (osmosis)  If a protein is added, it is now facilitated diffusion  Still does not need ATP!  Active Transport o Moving from low to high concentration (get more acid in stomach) o Requires ATP o Active transport o Difference btw active transport and facilitated diffusion?  Active needs ATP, facilitated doesn’t  Respiration o Where does it happen? Mitochondria o Takes in O2, glucose o Puts out CO2, H2O, ATP o Requires  Enzymes, glucose, oxygen  Exact opp of photosynthesis  Photosynthesis takes in CO2, H2O & sunlight, puts out O2 & glucose


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