BIO 1230 Class Notes February 8-12
BIO 1230 Class Notes February 8-12 BIO 123
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abby Joannes on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 123 at Clemson University taught by Professor Minor in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Biology in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
BIO 123 Notes February 8-12 February 8, 2016: Stem Cells • Stem cells: Undifferentiated/unspecialized cells that can divide continually and can be induced to differentiate into different cell types. o Meaning what? Each cell has genetic “switches”. Undifferentiated cells have not yet turned on any switches. Switches are what make them capable of having the potential to be any type of cell. Once cells turn on switches, they are unable to turn them off. o They have both reproductive and therapeutic functions and potentials • Where are stem cells found? o In zygotes. The fusion of egg and sperm cause for the potential for every type of cell o Adult stem cell sources: bone marrow • Types of capability in cells o Totipotent: these cells have total potential to be any type of cell. They are the least restricted in terms of potential. § Blastocysts: hollow ball with space for cells. Within the blastocysts are where embryonic stem cells are cultured from § Invitrofertilization o Multipotent & unipotent: more restricted in terms of the functioning of the cell. Multipotent may have a few potential workings, but unipotent are the most restricted. • What can stem cells do? o Umbilical stem cells § Many parents bank a child’s umbilical cord blood for the potential to genetically correct defects a child may encounter later in life § In South Carolina, a child’s UB is automatically stored. • Controversies o The United Kingdom has revoked laws of gene editing § Gene editing can cause both social and scientific problems o It is possible to clone pets now. Illegal in the United States, but Japan and China is is not. o Therapeutic cloning is not as controversial § Examples include skin replacement, treatment of cancers (Leukemia) February 10, 2016: Reproduction and Development • Female Reproductive Structures & Functions (found on blackboard reference page) o Ovaries: production of egg, estrogen, progesterone o Fallopian tubes (known as Oviducts in other animals): conduit for egg movement from ovary to uterus o Endometrium: builds up to nourish implanted egg. Shed monthly if egg is not implanted o Uterus: site of egg implantation and embryo development o Cervix: opening to uterus, normally plugged with mucus o Vagina: allows for internal fertilization o Labium majora: outer folds around vagina covered with hair o Labium minora: inner folds around vagina, continuous up over clitoris o Clitoris: developmentally analogous to penis with many nerve endin • Male Reproductive Structures & Functions o Scrotum: loose skin covering around testes and epididymis, muscles allow it to retract and expand to keep testes slightly below body temperature for sperm production o Testes: site of spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules, sperm in constant production under the influence of testosterone or inhibin o Epididymis: sperm mature here, grow tails and streamline to swim. Stored here until ejaculation o Vas deferens: long tube that conducts sperm from epididymis to urethra o Seminal vesicles: produce components of semen to nourish sperm o Prostate: encircles urethra and vas deferens where they join the urethra, commonly enlarges with age, produces components of semen o Bulbourethral glands: produce fluid to flush out urine from urethra when sexually stimulated o Urethra: conduit to outside of the body for both urinary and reproductive systems, urine is blocked when sexually aroused o Penis: for internal fertilization, surrounds urethra, erectile tissue allows enlargement for penetration of female o Glans: end of penis, present for entry into female o Foreskin: often removed in our culture, covers the glans February 12, 2016: Reproduction and Development • Contraceptive Methods o Permanent types of birth control § Vasectomy (males) § Tubal Ligation (females) o Abstinence § Most reliable method o Condoms § Only type of birth control that will prevent STDs • Pregnancy o Divided into 3 trimesters § Trimester 1: 0-12 weeks • Fetus at 9 weeks • Important developmental time § Trimester 2: 13-27 weeks § Trimester 3: 28 weeks to birth • Average baby weighs about 7.5 pounds
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