Psychology Week 5 Notes
Psychology Week 5 Notes PSY 2301
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
Popular in Behavioral Sciences
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aneeqa Akhtar on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2301 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Noah Sasson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Behavioral Sciences at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Aneeqa Akhtar February 8 , 2016 Chapter 6: Face Perception Faces: instantly confer a lot of information, without you consciously thinking about it (whether or not you know the person, if they’re male or female, about how old they are, what mood they are in) Sophisticated Face Recognition: Most people have incredible memory of faces o A study brought participants high school yearbooks, and participants could point out with a 90% accuracy whether or not specific students attended their high school Recognition abilities improve throughout childhood o Faces are processes differently from other visual stimuli Newborn preference: Newborns prefer faces with simple features, over faces with scrambled features or a face shape with no features Memory advantage: The immaturity of the vision system affects how babies look at faces (newborn vision is blurry, 2-month-olds can see blurry features, 6- month-olds have sharp eyesight) o Infant Face Perception Development Infant Face Scanning Study: captures images of where the baby’s eyes moved, and mapped those movements on a picture of a face -> the babies focused on hairlines and contours of the face o Inversion Effect (Yin, 1969): If you turn a face upside down, it’s harder to process Faces, unlike objects, are processed “holistically” -> we process all the features together as a whole o Thatcher Illusion: faces look okay upside down, but right side up they make have weird aspects or differences Infant Face Perception Development The effect of early visual deprivation (such as having congenital cataracts) on later face processing abilities Infants can tell animals, as well as humans, apart, but they gradually lose that ability since they do not receive perceptual training on those stimuli The Own-Race Bias: most people are more adept at differentiating between faces of their own race, or the race they have most experience with Increases into adulthood Is already present in 9-month old infants Inverting the faces diminishes the effect -> you lose the bias Development of Configuration Face Perception Development changes in the reliance of inner and outer facial features for recognition Young kids (6-7 years old) are better at recognizing people with their outer facial features, adults are better at recognizing people using their inner facial features How are faces special? Brain evidence o Double dissociation: prosopagnosia (inability to recognize familiar people from their faces), and object agnosia (difficulty recognizing objects) o Imaging evidence: Fusiform Gyrus (area of perceptual expertise) activates maximally to faces or anything that resembles faces Aneeqa Akhtar February 8 , 2016 Sometimes it activates to things that are associated with that person’s life (such as a car for a car dealer or a dog for a vet) Eye-tracking: a technique used to determine an individual’s eye movement and fixation patterns Uses: advertising, eye control (can be embedded into a desktop), medical and psychological research Face Processing Differences in Autism People without autism focus mainly on eyes and mouth, people with autism tend to look all over the place Reduced Prioritization of the Face in Autism Controls: focused on the face People with autism: looked all around the face People with Schizophrenia: also looked around a lot Face in the Crowd Effect: people are more likely to recognize angry faces; have an advantage to detect a threat, evolutionary advantage In certain context, face recognition can be VERY difficulty Eye witness testimonies: can be very shaky evidence The Expressive Face There is strong evidence for universal recognition of at least six basic emotions: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise -> this isn’t learned through social interaction Basic emotions are expressed the same everywhere Experienced Emotion Izard (1977) isolated 10 emotions. Most of them are present in infancy, except for contempt, shame, and guilt. In infants: joy, anger, interest, disgust, surprise, sadness, and fear Detecting Emotion: Hard-to-control facial muscles reveal signs of emotion you may be trying to control. A fake smile does not use the eye muscles like a genuine smile. What makes a face attractive? “Averageness”: the more faces are averaged, the more they resemble a cognitive prototype Infants as young as 2 months of age prefer faces deemed more attractive by adults Symmetry: faces that are proportional and balanced are generally deemed more attractive Illusion of sex: depends on contrast between features and skin tone Neoteny: Juvenile Characteristics Baby-like qualities are preferred and adored Cute babies are preferred Aneeqa Akhtar February 10 , 2016 Chapter 7: States of Consciousness “Altered state of consciousness” -> a person is not as self-aware as they should be Consciousness: moment by moment awareness of yourself, your thoughts, and your situation A conscious person is aware of: the immediate environment, knowledge of own thoughts, feelings, memories Where does consciousness come from? Brain is tangible Limits of introspection: observing one’s own thoughts and feelings You may not reveal honest thoughts o Ex: girlfriend asking if she looks fat in her jeans -> not smart to say the truth You may not have the words o Ex: what does your mother look like? Hard to articulate in a way that differentiates her from others We differ in subjective experiences o We all have different subjective thresholds and different opinions o Inverted Spectrum Problem: a different person may have totally different experiences than us -> they may have been raised to know that the color blu is actually yellow Studying Consciousness Answers pop into our heads without awareness of how this memory was retrieved o Ex: what is the name of your first grade teacher? We lack awareness about things that don’t require deep attention o Ex: What does a penny look lie? What letter is next to the letter ‘b’ on a keyboard? Cognitive Unconscious: all of the mental processes that occur outside our awareness Freud had a different view of the unconscious: wishes and desires that are in conflict with the conscious mind What are we conscious of? Selective Attention: the ability to focus awareness on a single stimulus to the exclusion of other stimuli o Ex: cocktail party phenomenon -> can focus on your partner’s words and ignore all other noise from the party Divided Attention: the ability to distribute one’s attention and simultaneously engage in two or more activities o We are really poor at this -> it’s an either/or not both o Ex: listening to music while writing a paper Brain activity is actually activity of awareness Perception without awareness Subliminal Perception: sensory input without conscious awareness of it o Ex: “I was just thinking about that song!” Ignoring your roommate while they hum the song, then you enter back into the room singing that song o Subliminal advertising: Aneeqa Akhtar February 10 , 2016 James Vicary: thought he could increase sales of popcorn while flashing advertisements for popcorns within milliseconds Sales increased by 58% -> turned out he faked the data KFC add: lettuce is actually a dollar bill Coca-Cola: the froth on the can looks like an attractive women laying down Varieties of Consciousness Alertness Dissociation Automation Sleep Hypnosis Meditation Drugs Sleep: Why do we sleep? o We spend 1/3 of our lives asleep o Restorative theories: being sleep deprived deteriorates us o Prolonged sleep deprivation can cause hallucinations, cognitive impairment, delusions, and even death o Sleep rejuvenates us Amount of slow wave sleep (deep sleep; slowed heart rate and respiration) depends on how long we’ve been awake o Circadian rhythm: biological clock, controls the rise and fall of physiological responses such as temperature, and even sleep Rhythm is daily and regulated by the sun Problems arise when disrupted (ex: jet lag) Evolutionary: it has a survival value -> conserves energy while away from predators, minimized our exposure to predators o Sleep is not like being unconscious: we can continue to process the external world while asleep Ex: infants crying Environmental events can become incorporated into our dreams Situational awareness: we don’t roll out of bed while asleep Continue to process our internal world: we wake up when we need to use the restroom Electroencephalogram: measures overall activity patterns of neuros in the brain -> used to tell how active as a whole a person’s brain is while asleep 5 Stages of Sleep o Stage 1-4: sleep progressively deepens, heart rate and respiration deepens and slows o Stage 5: REM sleep o Stage 1: EEG activity is of higher amplitude and lower frequency than during waking; people awaken from stage 1 claiming to have not been asleep o Stage 2: EEG is higher in amplitude Aneeqa Akhtar February 10 , 2016 o Stage 3: Waves are slower and higher in amplitude o Stage 4: virtually immobile, hard to wake, disoriented if awoken, the ‘restorative’ stage Implications of stage 4 involvement in growth: o Children who are deprived of stage 4 sleep show stunted growth o Many feel that a contributor to aging is that stage 4 sleep declines as we get older o Stage 5: the EEG is that of an AWAKE individual, muscle activity ceases completely, heart rate and respiration return to normal REM Sleep: Rapid Eye Movement o When the majority of dreaming occurs o The brainstem actively shuts down muscles Sleep paralysis: upon waking, a person has a temporary inability to move o Many see REM as being important for memory consolidation o Sleep occurs in cycles, generally progressing from 1-4 and Rem, and then starting over. Each cycle lasts roughly 90 minutes Approximately 4-6 cycles per night The first time through the cycle, you only spend about 10 minutes in REM – which increases to 30-60 minutes by the last cycle When people are deprived of REM sleep, REM rebound is often seen upon the next sleep period Sleep Disturbances Sleep Walking: occurs in stage 4; person is no conscious of content, though can navigate surroundings o Generally happens in children and dissipated with age o Not dangerous to awaken sleep walker Narcolepsy: involves brain abnormalities. Person may suddenly fall into REM sleep without warning o Lose consciousness and muscle tone Sleep Apnea: dangerous condition where the person stops breathing while asleep o Causes: mechanical problems with the airway REM Behavior Disorder: act out dramatic and/or violent dreams during REM stage sleep o Problem with normal inhibition of muscles that the pons usually carry out Insomnia: impairment in functioning due to inability to sleep o About 15-20% of adults suffer this o Causes: anxiety, emotional problems, health, use of drugs o One major cause is worry about having insomnia o Treatment: fix the source of the problem, conditioning procedures, maintain regimen, drugs – sleeping pills like Unisom or Ambien What are dreams? Dreams: electrochemical events that involve the brainstem, areas of the cortex, and the eys The mind is remarkably active during sleep Aneeqa Akhtar February 10 , 2016 All mammals dream Dreaming is greatest during early brain development REM rebound suggest dreaming is necessary and healthy What do we dream about? Most common themes: falling, being chases/attacked, repeatedly trying but failing to do something, flying o 64% associated with negative emotions, only 18% happy What influences the dreams we have? Concerns of everyday life External stimuli Yourself o Lucid dreaming: self-awareness of dreaming Why do we dream? Wish fulfillment (Freud): unconscious is motivated to satisfy sexual and aggressive urges; during sleep, defenses are down and dreams fulfill this drive o Manifest content: the dream content we remember o Latent content: the underlying urges (the “true meaning”) that give rise to the dream There is some neurological evidence for this: active limbic system, inactive frontal lobes Activation-synthesis (Hobson & McCarley) o Activation: random neural signals firing in the brainstem that spread up to the cortex o Synthesis: the brain then creates images and stories to make sense of the random signals Meditation: procedure that uses mental exercises designed to produce relaxation or heightened awareness o Transcendental meditation: use of a “mantra” o Relaxation response o Effects include: increased self-esteem and sense of control, overcoming insomnia, preventing smoking, lowers blood pressure, increased neural synchrony Hypnosis: an induced state of consciousness characterized by a focused awareness on vivid experiences and decreased awareness of the external environment o highly suggestible state: trance theory vs social factors o Franz Anton Mesmer: 2 stages of hypnosis: o 1) Induction: relaxation and focus of attention o 2) Suggestibility: including implanting false memories o Hypnotic Susceptibility: nobody can be hypnotized against their will o Effects of hypnosis: Perceptual effects: altering smells (ammonia as perfume) Pain relief Chemically Altered Consciousness Psychoactive drugs: induce changes in thinking, perception, and behavior by affecting neuronal activity in the brain o 4 categories: Depressants Aneeqa Akhtar February 10 , 2016 o Reduce neural activity o Slow body functions Stimulants o Excite neural activity o Speed up body functions o Ex: caffeine, nicotine, cocaine Hallucinogens o Psychedelic (mine-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions o Evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input o Ex: LSD Opiates Physical Dependence: a physiological need for a drug marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms Psychological Dependence: a psychological need to use a drug o Ex: to relieve negative emotions Drug Tolerance: o Tolerance: diminishing effect with the regular use of the same dose of a drug o Withdrawal: discomfort and distress that follows discontinued use of a drug Methamphetamines: stimulates activity, alertness and energy o Euphoria in high doses o Highly addictive, affects reward network in the brain, can lead to anhedonia LSD: lysergic acid diethylamide o A powerful hallucinogenic drug o Not addictive, but can have risky and unpredictable consequences THC: the major active ingredient in marijuana o Marijuana: relaxation and mood effects, heightens sensations, mild hallucinations Medical properties Low risk for addiction/dependence No overdose Not a ‘gateway’ drug Can impair judgement and motor responses Carcinogenic Can increase the risk of a psychotic break Aneeqa Akhtar February 10 , 2016
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