Week 5 Cognitive Psychology Notes
Week 5 Cognitive Psychology Notes PSY-4073-5073-001
Arkansas Tech University
Popular in Cognitive Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Lindenberg on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY-4073-5073-001 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Steven Andrew Berg in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
February 10 2016 0 Attention 0 Process of concentrating train of thought While excluding features of other aspects of environment or self 0 What do we know about attention 0 Resources are limited Performance suffers if attention is distributed across too many tasks 0 Talking on phone while driving and applying eyeliner We have some control over it c We have some choice on our selection of what gets our attention It can be shared across some tasks 0 Typically tasks will not overlap on modality 0 Working out listing to music Attention for some tasks must be maintained over time in states of arousal and vigilance Watch keeping activities continuously monitor a situation in which signi cant events are unlikely to occur 0 air trafficking Only partially conscious We attend to a variety of information that we are not aware 0 You may not have noticed a song playing in the grocery store but nd yourself humming the song latec Unattended Information 0 Information enters memory even when you don39t purposefully dedicate attention to it o propaganda Selective Attention Ability to focus attention on one message and ignore all others Research Method dichotic listening Cherry 0 Audio A in left ear Audio B in right ear 0 Participant must shadow what they hear in attended channel 0 Participants able to focus only on the message they were shadowing from the channel they were attending Suggests limited set of resources for dealing with environmental stimuli Resources are limited 0 Really dif cult if both messages are spoken by the same person 0 Common for participants to not remember shadowed message after Cherry 1953 continued Dichotic Listening 0 Some unattended information gets through Can usually detect sex of both talkers Can usually detect your own name 0 Important because even if you39re not consciously aware of the message somewhere downstream the message is being processed Selective Attention We can avoid seeing things by looking away but there s no option for audition 0 Instead we lter information 0 Cocktail Party Phenomenon 0 Observed when listeners hear their own name spoken by someone who was not the focus of the attention 0 Our name does not get ltered Selection has been modeled in various ways 0 Early Intermediate and Late 0 Models differ primarily on the point of separation in the information processing system The moment the attended message and unattended message become separate Selective Attention Early Selection Broadbent39s Filter Model 0 Sensory Memory 0 Filter Holds all incoming information for a fraction of a second long enough for brain to make use of it One message passes lter at a time all else ltered Attended message identi ed by physical characteristics of talker tone pitch speaking rate accent o Detector Processes all available information Extract semantics and higherlevel characteristics of message ie meaning of words implication of utterances Only dealing with attended message at that point 0 Short Term Memory Receives output of detector May transfer information to long term memory 10 to 15 seconds allowed for inspection o Broadbent39s Filter Model Filter message before incoming information is analyzed for semantics o Criticism Broadbent39s Filter Model Model doesn39t account for information from unattended channel getting into system Cocktail party phenomenon o Selective Attention Intermediate Selection Treisman39s Attenuation Theory Aimed at overcoming criticisms of early selection models Leaky lter model Attenuator Analyzes incoming message in terms of 0 Physical characteristics pitch 0 Language letterswords o Semantics meanings and implications Language and semantics can in uence separation of messages Needed in some cases when physical characters are too similar eg talkers of the same sex Attended message is passed through at full strength Unattended message is passed through at a weaker strength this is the leaky lter lf unattended message contains no useful or important information then it is attenuated We suppress the stuff we don39t want or need preserve resources to handle relevant information Dictionary Unit Contains stored words Each has an activation threshold that must be met for detection not the same as recognition Common words or those relevant to the context of the message have lower thresholds Less common words have higher thresholds 0 Your name low threshold o Rutabaga high threshold unless you39re really tuned into odd veggies Treisman39s Attenuation Theory Attended message can be separate from unattended message early in the infoprocessing system after physical characteristics have been processed
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