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WMST 02/02/16

by: Kay Patel

WMST 02/02/16 WMST 1110

Kay Patel

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Covers racism and heterosexuality from the assigned reading
Multicultural Women in the US
Nichole Ray
Class Notes
Multicultural Women in the US
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kay Patel on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to WMST 1110 at University of Georgia taught by Nichole Ray in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.


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Date Created: 02/12/16
Race, class, gender, and sexuality  Invention of Heterosexuality  Assumptions of sexuality  Understanding the development of heterosexual idea  Constructed by political/media/societal system  Goal is to challenge the normalcy of heterosexuality via the study of its historical  development  Compulsively heterosexuality  Historical overview:  1820­1860:  Middle class perspectives on sexuality  “True womanhood” “true manhood” “true love”  Victorian ideals about love dominate  Focus on “purity” and “procreation”  “no win” current culture is the residue of this era  No sex before marriage, being chased etc… (Jane Austen: Pride and Prejudice)  1860­1892:  Sexualities “in the making”  Shifts from “procreation” to “erotic”  Structural shifts in economy, familial structure etc…  Pleasure becomes commodified  20  century  Commercialization of sex within the economy and popular culture  Distinct separation of sexuality from purely procreational purposes  Affirmed the value of heterosexual pleasure  Defined sexual satisfaction as critical to personal happiness  More about pleasure and satisfaction  Affirmation of the value of the heterosexual pleasure  Entrance of the heterosexual  Invention of the term by US doctors categorizes sexual relationships  1930: the term heterosexual first appears in print  Important aspect of middle­class life  1945­1965  Cult of domesticity  Explicit distinction between “heterosexual” and “homosexual”  Sexuality becomes a primary marker of identity   Heterosexual: normal :: homosexual: deviant  1960s­70s  Sexuality channeled into accepted patterns of pleasure seeking:  Marital heterosexual relations  “Going Steady” among teens  Commercialized fantasies (playboy/strip clubs)  Homosexuality subject to closer scrutiny and social stigma  This strengthened LGBTQ identities and political resistance  Looking at marriages from a different perspective  Notions about romantic love due to social constructions  Not a state time period for all those who did not follow the normal  1980s­90s  Separations of sexuality and reproduction deepened further as new reproductive  technologies became available for women  However, women’s fear of pregnancy, society’s fear of “illegitimate” children,  and ongoing racist practices continues to mark the bound on female sexuality  Continues challenges activism  Conservative to the separation of sexuality and procreation (ex: abortion)  Feminist LGBTQ other grassroots organization—demand for greater medical  research and comprehensive sex education for youths and adults  Debates about sexuality continue to be central to US politics as well as to personal identity  Reading: Prison and the closet  There is an intersecting relationship between racism and heterosexism  We tend to view them separately   However, they rely upon one another for meaning and affect all of us  Goal: to engage and evolve a progressive politics of black sexuality  Major assumptions:  LGBTQ associated with whiteness  Assumption that “all blacks are heterosexual”  Question of homosexuality have always been tenuous in African American  communities  Black feminists and womanists challenge sexism and homophobia in black  communities and racism within LGBTQ communities  Racism and heterosexism  Both rely on segregation  Racism: race as visible marker used to separate people; state sanctioned laws that  separate blacks from whites in school, housing etc…  Heterosexism: encourage LGBTQ individuals to remain “closeted” especially prior to social movements; little protection against hate crimes, potential job loss, loss of child custody  Han’s experience (author of Darker Shades of Queer—reading)  Challenges as a gay man of color:  Racism among LGTBQ communities  Homophobia among people of color  Exoticizing gay men of color  Negotiating the “crisis of masculinity”   We tend not to question ideologies that defend racism and heterosexualism  Use binary thinking to produce hegemonic (dominant) ideologies  Racism: normalized white heterosexuality depends on deviant black heterosexuality to  give it a meaning   i.e. black people viewed as promiscuous and hypersexual


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