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CJ Week 5; 02/08, 02/10, 02/12

by: Courtney Small

CJ Week 5; 02/08, 02/10, 02/12 CJ 100

Courtney Small

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Notes from 02/08, 02/10, 02/12
Intro to Criminal Justice
Douglas Klutz
Class Notes
Introduction, Criminal Justice
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Small on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 100 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Douglas Klutz in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 02/12/16
Notes  from  02/08,  02/10,  02/12     Motor  Vehicle  Exception   •   Allows  the  search  of  a  motor  vehicle  without  a  search  warrant  (still  have  to  have   probable  cause)   •   Examples  of  probable  cause:  Sight  or  smell  of  contraband  (Plain  View,  plain  smell)   •   Minor  Traffic  violations  are  not  considered  probable  cause         Terry  v.  Ohio   •   Based  on  reasonable  suspicion,  an  individual  can  receive  a  "stop  and  frisk"   •   "Terry  Stop"  -­‐  Applies  to  traffic  stops  as  well       5th  Amendment:  Grand  Jury  Indictments     •   Grand  jury  decides  whether  the  prosecution  has  enough  evidence  to  bring  a  defendant   to  trial.     •   Probable  cause=  indictment  (formal  changing)=  green  light  to  proceed   •   No  probable  cause  =  "no  bill"  =  subject  to  change         Grand  Juries     •   Prosecutor  presents  evidence  against  subject     •   Advantages  for  prosecution  because:   1.   Proceedings  are  "secretive"  (only  prosecutor  and  jury  present"   2.   Exclusionary  rule  does  not  apply  to  grand  jury  proceedings     3.   Prosecutor  can  choose  which  evidence  presented  to  jury         Miranda  Warnings     •   Miranda  v.  Arizona  (1966)-­‐  protects  Fifth  Amendment  rights  of  individuals  against  self-­‐ incrimination     •   Rights  read  AFTER  a  person  has  officially  been  taken  into  custody,  but  before  any   interrogation  takes  place         Reasons  for  Miranda     •   Protection  against  forced  confessions  ("compelled  self-­‐incrimination")   •   Protection  against  lengthy  interrogations  without  legal  counsel     •   "Public  Safety"  exception-­‐  can  forgo  Miranda  warnings  if  there  is  a  threat  to  public   safety         Criminal  Court     •   Burden  of  Proof=  Beyond  a  reasonable  doubt     •   Does  not  mean  absolute  certanty     •   Quantify=  97%=99.9%   •   Reason  the  threshold  is  so  high     •   The  government  (state/federal)  brings  suit  against  (prosecutes)  a  person  who  they   believe  has  violated  the  law  (  the  defendant)   o   EX:  people  of  the  state  of  Cali     o   Prosecution-­‐  Plantiff  vs  OJ  simpson  (defendant)   Civil  Court     •   Burden  of  Proof=  Preponderance  of  Evidence     •   Tort=Civil  Wrong  (think  lawsuits)   •   Quantity=  51%  (50.1%)   •   Compensation  from  damages  or  injuries     •   *Amendment  7  has  to  do  with  civil  court*   •   One  party  (plantif)  who  feels  they  were  harmed  (tort)  brings  a  complaint  against   another  party  (the  defendant)   o   EX:  Liebeck  (plaintiff)  V.  McDonalds  Resturant  (Defendant)       Crime  Control  vs.  Due  Process   •   Two  competing  models  of  criminal  justice  administration:  Crime  Control  vs.  Due  Process   •   Crime  Control-­‐  FACT  ;  also  called  assembly  line  justice     •   Due  Process-­‐FICTION  ;  medias  depiction  of  our  criminal  justice  system       Crime  Control  Model   •   "Assembly  line  justice"   •   Speed  and  efficiency  are  main  goals     •   Avoids  the  courtroom,  promotes  plea  bargaining   o   *Plea  guilty  with  reasonable  expectation  of  a  reduction  in  a  charge  (for  a  lighter   sentence)   •   Court  System  revolves  around  plea  bargaining   •   Makes  up  most  of  the  criminal  justice  system       Due  Process  Model     •   "Obstacle  Course  Justice"   •   Stresses  using  the  adversarial  (courtroom)  process     •   Strained  resources  make  this  model  problematic     •   All  fictional         **TEST  QUESTION**   •   What  percentage  of  criminal  convictions  come  from  negotiated  place  deals  (plea   bargaining)?   o   90-­‐95%;  only  5-­‐10%  make  their  way  to  the  trial  room       Benefits  of  Plea  bargaining     •   Criminal  Defendants     •   Judges  -­‐  judges  want  to  clear  their  case  load,  similar  to  prosecutors     •   Prosecutors  -­‐like  plea  bargaining  allows  them  to  move  on  to  the  next  case  very  quickly;   increases  their  conviction  rate               Criticisms  of  Plea  Bargaining     •   Due  process  concerns,  defendants  give  up  their  constitutional  rights  (right  to  trial  by   jury)   •   Sentencing  policies  and  reduces  society's  interest  in  appropriate  punishments  for  crimes         Legal  Cases     •   Boykin  v.  Alabama  (1969)-­‐  Defendants  must  state  they  made  their  pleas  voluntarily,   before  a  judge  can  accept  the  plea     •   Santobello  v.  New  York  (1971)-­‐  If  the  prosecution  has  promised  a  lenient  sentence  as  a   result  of  a  plea  deal,  the  prosecution  must  keep  that  promise         The  Goals  of  Punishment     1.   Retribution-­‐"deserved  Punishment"   a.   "eye  for  an  eye"  and  "pay  their  debts"  to  society     b.   The  severity  of  the  punishment  should  fit  the  seriousness  of  a  crime     2.   Deterrence     a.   Criminal  Punishment  used  as  a  basis  for  affecting  the  future  choices  and   behavior  of  individuals     b.   Potential  offenders  will  consider  the  cost  vs.  benefits  before  committing  a  crime     c.   General  Deterrence:  Provides  an  example  to  the  general  public  that  discourages   criminal  behavior     d.   Specific  Deterrence:  Targets  the  decisions  and  behavior  of  offenders  who  have   already  been  convicted     3.   Incapacitation   a.   Depriving  an  offender  of  the  ability  to  commit  crimes  against  society,  usually  by   detaining  the  offender  in  prison     b.   Capital  Punishment  is  the  ultimate  method  of  incapacitation   c.   Selective  Incapacitation:  Targeting  repeat  offenders  with  no  longer  prison  terms   ("  career  criminals")   4.   Rehabilitation     a.   Goal  of  restoring  a  convicted  offender  to  a  constructive  place  in  society  through   training  and  therapy   b.   Focuses  on  the  offender,  offenders  are  treated,  not  punished.     c.   Judges  should  avoid  fixed  sentences,  instead  using  maximum  and  minimum   guidelines  to  release  offenders  when  rehabilitated         Death  Penalty  as  a  Criminal  Sanction     •   The  U.S  supreme  court  suspended  its  use  from  1972  to  1976  amid  debates  concerning   the  Eighth  Amendment  (cruel  and  unusual  punishment).         Furman  v.  Georgia  (1972)   •   Holding:  Supreme  Court  found  that  the  death  penalty  was  being  imposed  in  an   unconstitutional  manner     •   Never  ruled  the  death  penalty  itself  to  be  unconstitutional             Death  penalty  as  a  criminal  Sanction     •   Which  state  has  the  largest  total  number  of  death  row  inmates  as  of  January  1,2016?   •   California-­‐  743  total              


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