Unit 2 Week 1 of Human Anatomy (EEB 24)-- Muscles and nerves
Unit 2 Week 1 of Human Anatomy (EEB 24)-- Muscles and nerves EEB 240
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stefanie Schumacher on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EEB 240 at a university taught by Dr. Alston in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Unit 2 Notes—Week 1 (Muscles and nervous) Muscles o Superficial Fascia Loose connective tissue (usually) Continuous connection between loose and dense Holds skin to muscle Sometimes holding two muscles together Easy to tear o Deep Fascia More dense Deeper than superficial (but can still be located close to surface) Separates muscles into groups (flexors and tensors) Cause compartmentalization in limbs These compartments are completely enclosed o Busting blood vessels in compartments (due to major blow) can cause pressure and cause nerve damage—such as in the lower leg o Epimysium Connective tissue around individual muscles Can be thick like cloth, but can also be thin and hard to see Continuous with tendon at the end of the muscle o Fascicle The parts that the muscle is broken up into Covered by connective tissue called perimysium Made up of myofibers, or muscle fibers (cells of the muscle) o Endomysium Connective tissue around each muscle cell (myofiber) Bundles of proteins called myofibrils These myofibrils do NOT have connective tissue around them o Tendons Split up into the different layerings and coverings o From dense to loose o Visual parts of the muscle Origin The tendon at the end of the muscle that stays stationary Can be moved by a different muscle Multiple origins = heads (biceps and triceps) Insertion Moves with contraction o Can only contract a muscle Multiple insertions = slips (serratus anterior) 2 o Arrangements Fascicles can be arranged in different ways o Affects range of movement o Affects strength o Can be used to identify muscle Parallel Rectus abdominous Sartorius o This arrangement is uncommon Fusiform Parallel in middle, but taper toward end Ex. Bicep o Very common Convergent o Broad origin and narrow insertion o Usually triangle-shaped Pectoralis major Unipennete o Central tendon that stays as a band of connective tissue through the entire muscle Forearm and lower leg Bipennete o Rectus femoris 3 Multipennete o Deltoid, gluteus maximus o Strong because it focuses contraction in one direction Circular Orbicularis Sphinctor o Naming Muscles Muscles are named for what they do Extensors, abductors, etc. For where they attach For their shape Nervous System Broken into 2 systems o Central Nervous System Completely encased in bone Brain and Spinal cord No nerves o Peripheral Nervous System Everything but the brain and spinal cord All the nerves of the body When information goes from the peripheral to central is called afferent or sensory When information goes from central to peripheral it is called efferent or motor o Motor goes to glands and muscles 4 o Afferent Somatosensory- touch, pressure, vibration, temp (from skin) Propiosensory- muscles, tendons, and joints Movement Special Sensory- smell, hearing, vision, taste, equilibrium Visceral- abdominal, blood pressure, internal organs (bladder and rectum), and thoracic cavity o Efferent Somatic- skeletal muscle Easily controlled consciously (but we often don’t think about it) Excitatory Autonomic- smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands Generally subconscious control Some functions can be brought under conscious control Broken into two categories o Sympathetic o Parasympathetic Sympathetic Fight or flight o Gets ready for physical activity Excitatory and inhibitory 5 Ex. Inhibits digestive system Skin is only sympathetic Parasympathetic Rest and digest o Excites and inhibits Excites digestive system Sympathetic and Parasympathetic work opposite of each other o Histology of Nerve Tissue Neurons—transmit info Glial cells—help neurons (helper cells) o Membrane potentials= electrical signals (along axon in neuron) o Neurotransmitters= chemical signals (between separate neurons) Short range o Synapse= area of connection between 1 neuron and the next o Synaptic cleft= gap between cells (they do not touch) Multipolar neuron (typical neuron) Multiple dendrites Single axon (long) Symatic motor Central Nervous System Bipolar neuron Sensory organs 6 o Retina of eye o Olfactory of nose Unipolar or Pseudo-unipolar Somato and proprio in peripheral sensory Anaxonic Central Interconnections No axons visible o Neurological cells Peripheral and central (different kinds of cells) Swan cells (peripheral) Phospholipid make up cells called myelin Myelin wraps around the axon o Helps speed o Critical in repair Satellite Cells (peripheral) Around cell bodies of neuron o Assist Oligodendrocyte (central) Act on multiple axons Structural framework Increase speed of membrane potentials Astrocytes (central) 7 Regulate gases Interact with vascular system Tight junctions in capillaries in brain o Blood- brain barrier Little repair Microglial cells (central) Remove cell debris (clean-up) Epodermal (central) Fluid-filled spaces in brain or spinal cord 8