Bio 94 Burley Chapter 31 AND substitute lecture from 2/11/16
Bio 94 Burley Chapter 31 AND substitute lecture from 2/11/16 05220
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Karina Martin on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 05220 at a university taught by Nancy Burley in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 85 views.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Bio 94 Burley Chapter 31 Green Plants Book and Lecture Notes 1 Plantae 2 3 a b C d land plants i Evolved from fresh water algae ii Monophyletic clade iii Embryophytes 1 fertilization and early development take place on parent 2 zygoteembryo stays with parent 3 doesn t have to manufacture its own food or nutrition gets that from mother plant iv Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll a and b beta carotene v Cell wall composition chloroplasts synthesize amp store starch sperm structure etc green algae i Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll a and b beta carotene ii Cell wall composition chloroplasts synthesize amp store starch sperm structure etc iii Single cells to multicellular iv Marine and freshwater forms v Paraphyletic red algae glaucophyte algae Green Algae and Land plants have synapormorphies linking one to the other a 13 Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll a and b beta carotene Cell all composition chloroplasts synthesize History of Green Plants 3 Adaptive Radiation Timeline i No need to know actual dates but know the order 1 Origin of Land Plants a First evidence of land plants cuticle spores sporangia 2 Silurian Devonian Explosion a Most major morphological innovations stomata vascular tissue roots leaves 3 Carboniferous a Lycophytes and horsetails abundant extensive coal forming swaps 4 Gymnosperms Abundant a Both wet and dry environments blanketed with green plants for the first time 5 Angiosperms Abundant a Diversification of owering plants ii Trends 1 T independence from water 2 T size 3 T parental contribution to zygote iii Fossil Record 1 Green algae fossils 725 million years ago mya 2 Land plants fossils 475 mya 3 Several major adaptations evolved once 4 Transition to Land 3 b d In algae i Spore 1 a single cell produced by meiosis reduction division I diploid to haploid a can develop into multicellular adult 2 haploid not formed by fusion of gametes 3 spores can also be produced by mitosis 4 present in ancestors of extant green algae 5 on surface have durable substance called sporopollenin ii Sporopollenin l durable polymer water tight material that encases spores and pollen a an outer wall of spores and pollen 2 prevents drying out 3 protects reproductive cells from dehydration Protists already had spores and agellated sperm agellated sperm in Charophyceae ag spores in other green algae Benefits to moving onto land i More sunlight and C02 1 More photosynthesis ii There was dehydration but land plants evolved Innovation of Land Plants i UV absorbing compounds avonoids 1 Land plants have avonoids I a group of plant metabolites thought to provide health benefits through cell signaling pathways and antioxidant effects ii Cuticle waxy coating on outermost cell layer 1 Help resist drying I interferes with gas exchange iii Stomata structures on plant surface permitting gas exchange for photosynthesis pores with guard cells 1 Helps gas exchange occur for photosynthesis 2 When stomata closes guard cells water doesn t escape 5 Altemation of Generations 3 b C CD Only happens in plants Evolved once in land plants through convergent evolution Multicellular haploid stage gametophyte alternates with multicellular diploid stage sporophyte i Sporophyte cannot make another sporophyte the same goes for gametophytes ii Meiosis and Mitosis are involved SPOROPHYTE 2N I MEIOSIS I SPORES 1Nsingle celled I MITOSIS I GAMETOPHYTE IN I MITOSIS I GAMETE 2X IN I SYNGAMY I ZYGOTE 2N I MITOSIS I SPOROPHYTE 2N ru39 uliiea llular r 7 smelnnhrin magma Mitosis j Spurn Gunman HumeIn n rmam hwgi EFMiEEiI tlal n j DIIF LEIEEIquot ail Eyuie Mitosis Muttieatlu larf Ep ir hy39t e There are four diagrams we need to know i Non Vascular Plants 1 Gametophyte dominant 2 Homosporous 3 No cone 4 No owers 5 No vascular tissue 6 Rhizoids but no roots stems leaves a Rhizoids specialized root like tissue anchor gametophyte but don t absorb waterminerals 7 Obtain water by diffusion mostly 8 No support against gravity 9 Small size Resistant to desiccation Need water for reproduction Nonvascular plants Masses EamEtuphyte is large aincli Hang lived EF39ITDphyte depend an 93 matuphyte fur nutriti n Archa39nnium Eggs furrmn V 39 quot 539 amheguma a m w ellupingl v39 smph e antheri ia E 39 l EE in re produced in sp r angiiia 39 f 1 f y A 5 ml MathIre 23 minglesis F gametuphm 7 39 m m Developingh l w 97 7 e 39 5 gamerwhite Spare ME IQSIE in gamemphmelnf i ii Seedless Vascular Plants 1 Sporophyte dominant 2 Homosporous 3 No cone 4 No owers 5 Vascular tissue conducts watersolutes throughout plant lignin provides strength a allowed plants to defy gravity amp improved water conduction Hey IHIBFIIGW in ME V iniipidid Zn 6 ii iiiiiidsiddnd v devel pmem Sperm 1 released imam gametangium V Stalk Sgp mphft s gmwiing fimm gamemiphwes 1 39Smmhm En e Ergotie 2n a Mitesie and deveiidpmem iii Gymnosperms l Sporophyte dominant 2 Seeds 3 Heterosporous 4 Cones 5 No owers 6 Vascular tissue i Uiii ii iii A mm spam palilen grain I 7 Ii haploid gametophyte mother mules contain diploid megasporangia arthegiiiriiiai DI Sporophyte r l diploid El diploid Adapted from Biological Science by Freeman ii Pearson Edided ikiniii line iV Angiosperms l Sporophyte dominant 2 Heterosporous 3 No cones 4 Flowers 5 Vascular tissue 6 Seeds 2quot rm 2 fat 1quot r 1 rquot 1 1 W5 1 2 g r lg female to l il 39intnpl 3 fits llgr 3 fr 1 x male am ph e 39 palm 6 Plant Animal Coevolution a Coevolution 2 interacting species in uence each other s adaptations on a sustained basis b Mutualistic coevolution i Both species benefit 1 Angiosperms with pollinators c Antagonistic coevolution arms race i Evolution of adaptations and counter adaptations between competing species or between predators and their prey 7 Plant defenses against herbivory a Mechanical i Thorns spines prickles etc b Chemical i alkaloids amines diterpenoids saponins carenolides phenols curcubitacins canogenic glycosides ii One organism s toxin is another s medicine 8 Uses of Seed Plants 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a Ecosystem services i 02 soil composition water retention primary producers carbon cycle b Food fiber fuel to humans c Source of compounds for medicine amp industry Bio 94 Burley substitute lecture21116 150000 Americans a year are diagnosed with colon cancer I found in large intestine 50 000 Americans dies from colonrectal cancer Female deaths from cancer a Lung b Breast c Colon Male deaths from cancer a Lung b Prostate c Colon Colon cancer risk factors a Age 90 occur after age 50 b Family History c History of colon polyps d History of uterine cancer e Diet I we don t know f Sedentary lifestyle lack of exercise Colorectal Screening Rates Are Alarmingly Low Conclusions a GET COLONOSCOPIES colon cancer screening i Effect of doing so 1 Very substantially reduce risk of dying from colon cancer 2 w colonoscopy your colon gets cleaned out effectively countering age genetic makeup and other factors The point of it all a w colonoscopies we are witnessing the fruits of the Golden Age of Biology marriage of science and technology b put differently enjoying immense payoffs of scientific method and materialistic vs theistic view of the world Social Darwinism and Eugenics a Herbert Spencer b Crude idea of survival of the fittest c Eugenics movement in US 1919 1950 10 Eugenics a Active promotion by humans of particular traits in a human population 13 Underlying belief those selected are better adapted 11 Eugenics and Social Darwinism 3 b C d Better adapted in what sense i Do better in capitalist society ii Commit fewer crimes iii Have fewer genetic affects iv Are more intelligent What else thought desirable i Suppression of inferior genes IQ Test ii Suppression of certain races and ethnic groups iii Those who wanted to intermarry How done i Special policies institutionalization sterilization Who determines i The rich and powerful those who control social institutions 12 Eugenics and California a b d Program promoted by i State s civic leaders ii Planned Parenthood founder Margaret Sanger iii LA Times publisher Harry Chandler beginning 1917 iv Cal Tech head Robert Millikan 1920s Other promoters included i USC President Rufus Kleinsmid ii Louis Terman Stanford psychologist who developed IQ Test iii Doctors who believed that sterilization was good for mental patients What California did i Was third of 30 states in nation to legalize sterilization of insane and feeble minded ii Promoted programs that resulted in 20 000 people being sterilized between 1919 and 1950 iii This was ONE THIRD of ALL people Who was targeted i Men and women equally ii Foreign born more than natives iii African American more than Caucasians iv Those w large families and histories of mental illness J ustifications i Saved the state as much as one million dollars a year keeping people out of overcrowded hospitals ii Was doing what nature could not do and therefore had gov step in iii Backed by US congress Final Important Reminders i Darwinism is NOT normative does not say WHAT SHOULD BE DONE ii Darwinism is only descriptive of what happens in nature iii Darwin neither talked about or promoted anything like Social Darwinism g Descriptive and Normative Statements i All organism seek their own best interest at the cost of others descriptive ii All organism including humans SHOULD seek their own best interest and pay no interest to the interest of others normative h The world is a place in which we resolve con icts between nations by going to war descriptive i The world is a place in which we SHOULD resolve con icts by going to war normative 13 Consider Finally a You can wo contradiction be i A hardcore evolutionist ii And a good and caring Christian or Muslim or Jew or Atheist iii And a hardcore socialist iv And just about anything else you want to be
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