HDFS 1070 Week 4 Notes
HDFS 1070 Week 4 Notes HDFS 1070
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Tabacchini on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 1070 at University of Connecticut taught by Ronald Sabatelli in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Individual and Family Development in Human Development at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Lifespan Journey Pt. 2 2/10 Lecture Temperament Cont. Implications for parents and caregivers o “Goodness of Fit” caregivers have to be sensitive to a child’s temperament caregivers have a responsibility to adapt their own behavior to better fit with the temperament of the child in order to create a better social environment must do this instead of insisting the child to have a different temperament than they do ex. Forcing an active child to be still creates a negative environment ex. Trying to make a child eat at lunch time when they aren’t hungry creates a negative environment o Kaiser-Permanent Study This study was a really well controlled experiment design in which they gave parents information on their newborn’s temperament and had another group that they gave no information to. The parents who had knowledge on temperament adjusted better to parenthood (were happier with their parenting and their children) and knew the expression of temperament and thought about the concept of goodness of fit Ex. Parents who were given information didn’t get frustrated or blame themselves when all of their children were fussy at the same time Contextual/Ecological Perspective on Fetal Development Infant Mortality o US rate: 8/1000 Rasical disparities Caucasian rate: 6.6/1000 African American rate: 17.6/1000 o Japan rate: 4.4/1000 o If children die within the first 2 years of life, its either because they were born with a genetic mishap or an environmental factor compromised their survival. o It is important to look at the US rate in context to other westernized nations. We are the leader in medical technology and research yet our infant mortality rate is higher than other nations. There will be disparities because of education and the quality of the environment, in addition to health care. Why is this? Prenatal care o Other countries do it in a different way which promotes the survivability of babies Parent’s knowledge Malnutrition o We don’t tolerate poverty the same as other nations- we are an individualistic society Poverty o We don’t have a lot of safety nets in place for people who don’t make enough money- this filters into prenatal care, health, and nutrition (basically all aspects of a fetus’s life) Contextual factors which impact fetal development Age of parent o There is an optimal window for child bearing in women: between 18-35 years of age. Babies have risk factors if they are carried by their mother outside of this age range. o In your mother’s cohort, most women stopped having babies at 28, but your cohort isn’t going to start having babies until around the age of 32. The issue with this is that we are pushing the limits of the optimal window because there are more risk factors and fertility issues associated which need to be taken into consideration. Fertility levels decline as you age- when a women pushes off childbearing, she deals with more infertility issues. 1% of babies born last year were conceived with medical help/technology. With older mothers, there is also the issue of more genetic mishaps. With older fathers, most recent research suggests a deprivation in the quality of sperm as they age- could result in certain genetic anomalies in children. Prenatal supervision o In CT, 11% of babies were born to no prenatal supervision care. This is coming from one of the richest states in the country. Universal healthcare would help Factors: education, knowledge, healthcare, availability Nutrition o Among educated people, there is both an acknowledgement of a nutritional robust diet and a cultural mandate that you shouldn’t gain a lot of weight during pregnancy. Women need to gain an average of 35-40 pounds during pregnancy and lose that weight afterward If women are anxious about weight gain, they may compromise on nutrition, which in turn isn’t good because the prenatal environment of the child is compromised and lacking in nutrition problems could come out, such as teratogens Teratogens: toxins that compromise the fetus. May not be toxic to the mother because the dosage level to be toxic is higher than that of a fetus. Ex. A drug the mother takes while pregnant may not be safe to the fetus. Things pass from the mother to the fetus in pregnancy. o Risks are determined by: Timing: it may be true that a toxin present during the first trimester will really mess with fetal development but if it is present during the third trimester it may have no affect. It is hard to decide for sure because it is not ethical to test on mothers and their fetuses. It is hypothesized that exposures during earlier times of pregnancy are the most critical- they have the most devastating affects on the fetus during this time. Ex. If the moster has the German measles during the 1 trimester, it is a death sentence to the fetus, but this is not true if the mother were to contract the German measles during the 2nd or 3 trimester. st Planning pregnancies is best because the 1 trimester is the most important time of a pregnancy. Ex. Prenatal vitamins, no alcohol consumption, healthy diet, etc. Ex. The Zika virus: in a biological ecosystem there will always be environmental toxins evolving that will compromise fetal development. A vaccine will be created for the Zika virus in the future, but in between that time there will be uncertainty about things. The only advice the CDC has for women is to use condoms; this is wrong because it doesn’t make a difference- it’s a mosquito born illness! o Examples of teratogens Nicotine and Psycho-active drugs Impact on fetal development by being born premature and having a low birth weight. Premature birth is a factor most associated with infant mortality. (professor said this would definitely be asked on the exam) Maternal Stress o The more stressed the mother is, the more she has complications of labor and delivery, which leads to more possible damage to the baby during birth. Ex. Cerebral palsy: motor coordination is affected. This could result from damage during birth (the only way in which it happens) o The more you educate, prepare, and pay attention to stress in a parent’s environment, the better the delivery process goes. This is good for the mom and the baby. Prevention vs. Intervention Mostly everything is preventable. If you think of the prenatal period, think of the fact that you want to be sure that things are prevented that could compromise the health and wellbeing of a person during that period of development. Why focus on prenatal prevention? o Humanistic reasons: want everyone’s life to be healthy o Health and societal costs $1 saves $6 All the studies that look at the return in investment and prevention say that for every $1 spent in prevention saves $6 in intervention costs- $6 are returned in every $1 spent. This comes from all kinds of research programs. Point being we have to think more preemptively of preventing problems. Our infant mortality rates reflect the fact that we are not anywhere near committed to prevention as other countries are. For example, we should focus on parenting. To drive a car, we have to go through so many obstacles just to get a license, while to be a parent we don’t have to do a thing. You don’t have to demonstrate anything to be a mother or father. Prevention triangle: there are many different types of prevention Tertiary Secondary: when problems start to occur or problems are possible and then take counter measures. Still trying to prevent a full-blown problem from occurring Primary: broad attempts to make sure that every woman is taking vitamins in anticipation of getting pregnant, has all information on how to manage pregnancy before pregnancy, and has doctors visits regularly right from the beginning. Intervention comes after all 3 of these (after the problem evolves) Sabatelli, Ronald. “Prenatal Development.” HDFS 1070. University of Connecticut, Storrs. 10 February 2016. Lecture. Infancy and Attachment 2/12 Lecture Notes Infancy: birth to 2 years of age Period of life from birth to 2 years of age within that stage there is a huge amount of growth and development that occurs. Ex. A baby at two months is so different from a baby at six months. Period of very rapid development. Within this period come developmental issues, which help us understand how individuals develop in unique ways. Developmental Tasks o Within the physical domain Physically primed to socially interact with caretakers A baby that’s born gestationally on time: born physically primed to socially interact with caretakers in ways that allow caretaking responses from caretakers. Necessary for the infants survival. We are biologically primed to respond to infants when they show cues to us survivability of infant Ex. No experience with a cat and given a kitten to sit with. Kitten purrs and lets you pet it endorphins are released into your bloodstream and the body relaxes (how we as adults are primed to interact with babies) this same kind of response in most people happens (would not happen to someone who is very psychologically damaged) that bond promotes our ability to take care of a child which enhances their survivability Who are the infants at risk? Physical defects, developmental abnormality... they don’t elicit those responses from people because of different behavior... change the typical exchange between o Don’t elicit a bond between child and caretaker o Bonding is critical to the baby’s survival o Within the emotional domain The emotions are the key to communication between babies and their caretakers*** Theory of Primary and Secondary Emotions: humans are born with the ability to express 2 primary emotions: anxiety and joy. All other emotions are derivatives derived from the primary experience of either joy or anxiety. Ex. When you feel angry, what you first feel is afraid and then form into anger. Ex. Ashamed of yourself from anxiety of being judged by others. Babies start out experiencing just anxiety. When we are in a state of nonanxiety, we experience joy. Anxiety o Never feel joy when anxious Joy o When anxiety is absent, we have the capacity to experience joy. We experience a reciprocal joy with child when they express joy to us o People who are good at regulating their anxiety experience more joy in their life If you don’t get rid of the anxiety, you don’t experience joy Emotions are key to communication between child and caretakers We respond to the child by the different emotions that are being expressed One of the foundations of all bonds we experience is the ability of our attachment to reduce anxieties o Commitment to reducing the anxiety fosters a more joyful relationship Babies are going to express their negative emotions in a form of crying o When you reduce that anxiety, they are content experience joy and the joy fosters the bond that we experience with them o Within the social domain important for babies that they attach to us in a social form one of the first foundational social developments in the lives of a baby is from the social bonds and attachments with caretakers they feel comforted in the presence of that person and their anxiety is reduced seek person out for care a support Infant Attachment multiple attachments are formed to anyone who reduces the baby’s anxiety the more someone reduces anxiety, the stronger the attachment to them what is it? o can differentiate smells of own mom with another mother develop preferences o attachment involves a object permanence: cognitive ability where you understand that an object has permanence. It exists when its not in your site. Have a cognitive representation of that person or object. (around 68 months) can differentiate parents from strangers and people they know When does it occur? o 68 months of age How do we know when it is occurring? o Stranger anxiety Cry and react negatively to strangers because of object permanence o Separation distress Once you have an attachment to a person, get distressed when they are not present o Social referencing Check in with someone visually when out and about, if there, don’t get distressed. Don’t have to be in physical contact with the person. Helps regulate emotions in social environment. Types of Attachments Attachments babies form are variable on an anxiety continuum o Continuum from Secure to Insecure Some are in the middle ranges while others are at opposite extremes Ex. Leave baby at daycare. In secure attached infant, may be distressed but calm themselves because trust their needs will be met. A baby with insecure attachment o Distinguishing Features of Infants with Secure Attachments Child experiences no anxiety of whether you will be there to support the child Develops when caretaker reduces anxiety Working models of social relationships in which they believe that they can trust people and those people will meet their needs Child regulates emotion o Distinguishing Features of Infants with Insecure Attachments Experience much less joy because in a more anxious state most of the time Different types of insecure attachment Anxiousavoidant attachment: anxious and avoidant. These babies are already differentiating anxiety from anger. They experience anger at their caretakers in anticipation that they will not understand and won’t meet their needs. Kids develop working model where they don’t trust their needs will be met because anticipate people will let them down and they will be disappointed. Ex. When you leave, baby runs up and kicks you instead of saying goodbye. Storms off mad. Parent comes back and the child runs away to hide or hits them. Anxiousresistant attachment: anxious and resistant. They resist separation and are needy and clingy. Worried that their needs wont be met, don’t trust that they can leave your side. Hold onto caretaker in a panicked state. These babies can’t regulate their emotions at all. Ex. Leave child and the child clings to leg and screams. Could be an hour or two before they settle down into new environment. Disorganized attachment: some days when you see both resistant and avoidant tendencies. So emotionally disregulated. Factors Influencing Attachments The more I reduce your anxiety, the stronger attachment will be and the more secure it will be. If I demonstrate to you that your needs will be met, will be more securely attached. Parental sensitivity parental bonding o Figure out where anxiety is coming from and try to reduce that anxiety Cultural factors o In Russia, babies are always carried looking out in the front. o Differentiate the need, reduce the anxiety secure attachment. In all cultures, just done in different ways. o In US: don’t spoil babies, don’t meet all their needs. Not true, because spoiling is when you give the child something they don’t need and cant really happen in the first two years of life. Ex. If let baby cry to sleep, wont wake up feeling secure and taken care of. Infant characteristics o Temperament: some babies are easier than others. (goodness of fit***) o If bothered by certain environments, don’t put in those environments, don’t expect them to accommodate to you accommodate to them. Contextual sources of stress and support o Capacity to be responsive to another is inversely related to the amount of stress you are under. Parents have a lot of sources of stress in their lives which spills over into the relationship and bond with the infant. relationship stress. Have harder time being responsive to the baby *when decentering notion becomes so important! o Ex. Alcohol or drug addiction Importance of Attachment working models of social relationships? people have working models of relationships have a tendency to trust or mistrust others and whether people will be responsive to them or not these early working models serve as a foundation for the working models experienced as we age and through time Issue here is how anxiety filters into how we structure and experience social relationships! Shaver and Hazen: adult attahment styles play out into romantic and socil relationships o Secure: experience joy in relationships more so than anxiety and trust people o Insecure Preoccupied: insecurely attached, preoccupied with holding onto relationships o Exaggerated desire for closeness with friends and lovers o Dependence on others o Highly concerned with being rejected: clingy and needy and easily made jealous o Everything makes them upset o Collect all kinds of evidence of closeness with them Dismissing: want nothing to do with o Independent (defensively independent?) Don’t want anything to do with relationships don’t even give a chance. If get too close, stop it because expecting disappointment. o Selfreliance o Low in trust, high in autonomy Fearful: combo of the two above o Desire closeness, approach people, get involved, and when relationship becomes more intimate back off and panic o Fear being rejected o Avoid intimacy Preemptive distancing (break up when get too close to someone because expecting disappointment) The better its getting, the more anxious they get Those that are insecurely attached in infancy are going to have difficulty with attachment in adulthood. (Probabilistically) Others could repair insecure attachment style before adulthood to change the course. Sabatelli, Ronald. “Infancy and Attachment.” HDFS 1070. University of Connecticut, Storrs. 12 February 2016. Lecture.