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FSHN 150 4th week of notes

by: Mikaila Arao

FSHN 150 4th week of notes FSHN 150

Mikaila Arao

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week 4
Survey of Human Nutrition
John Wilson
Class Notes
FSHN 150
25 ?




Popular in Survey of Human Nutrition

Popular in Nursing and Health Sciences

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikaila Arao on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FSHN 150 at Colorado State University taught by John Wilson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Survey of Human Nutrition in Nursing and Health Sciences at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 02/13/16
02/13/2016 ▯ ▯ Digestion and Absorption of Carbs  Starts in mouth o Salivary amylase o Stomach o Small intestine  Pancreatic amylase and intestinal cells  Absorption o Glucose and galactose (active) o Fructose (facilitated)  Portal vein to the liver ▯ Functions of Carbs (KNOW FOR TEST)  Energy yielding o Glucose  From glycogen  12 hour supply of glucose  Protein sparing o From protein muscle o Gluconeogenesis  new glucose o Spares protein to make new cells, muscle tissue, etc.  Prevent ketosis o Formed when there is not sufficient carbs to completely metabolize fatty acid breakdown o Ketone bodies  Can be used for energy  Sweetener ▯ Regulation of Blood Glucose  Hyperglycemia o Insulin o Above the line  Hypoglycemia o Glucagon  Goes to liver to release glucose for energy o Below the line Organs and Hormones in Blood Glucose Control  Role of liver o Regulates glucose that enters bloodstream ▯ The Function of : (KNOW)  Insulin o Promotes glycogen synthesis  Both liver and muscles o Don’t have insulin glucose cant get into cells o Increase glucose uptake by the cells (energy) o Convert glucose into fat (maybe) o Reduces gluconeogenesis o NET EFFECT: lowers the blood glucose  Glucagon o Breakdown of glycogen o Enhances gluconeogenesis o NET EFFECT: raises blood glucose ▯ ▯ Top 5 carb sources in USA  White bread  Soft drinks (juices and sodas)  Cookies and cakes (including doughnuts)  Sugars/syrups/ jams  Potatoes ▯ Carbs in Foods  Grains, breads, legumes, fruits, veggies  Fiber slows the digestion and absorption of blood glucose ▯ Whole and Refined Foods  Grains and seeds or kernels contain 3 parts o Endosperm o Bran  Removed for food processing  When removed, many vitamins and minerals are removed with it o Germ ▯ A High Carb Diet – Complex  Rich in fiber  Rich in vitamins and minerals  Rich in phytochemicals o Not essential o Reduce diseases and cancers when consumed in food form  Contains essential fatty acids  Rich in antioxidants  Promote satiety o Feeling of fullness Recommendations for SIMPLE sugar intake  Low nutrient density  50 grams (10 teaspoons)  avg. about 82 grams ▯ Sugars  4 kcal/g ▯ ▯ Alternative Sweeteners  May not be digested by the body  May cause health problems  Acceptable daily intakes o 50 mg/ per day = 14 cans or 80 packets  Stevia o Extracted from leaf in south America o 0 calories o in Coke and Pepsi o no glycemic response because it is not digested  good alternative for diabetic ▯ ▯ Carbohydrates: Health Issues  WILL NOT BE ASKED ABOUT STATS ON TEST  Type 2 diabetes o Insulin: hormone o Sugar is used as a source of energy in your body o Pancreas does not make insulin o sugar builds up in the blood because sugar cannot enter cells since there is no insulin opening the gates  insulin resistance o pancreas makes enough insulin but body doesn’t know how to properly use it o sugar builds up in blood o pancreas produces more insulin  eventually wears out pancreas and insulin production slows down  causes the body to not have enough insulin  Diabetes o hyperglycemia o May be ober 300 mg/ dl o Symptoms… excessive…  Hunger: cells are “starving”  Urination: high blood glucose spills  thirst  Diabetes: Type 1 (ON EXAM) o Moderate genetic pattern o Must inject insulin o Childhood onset o Results in hyperglycemia o Ketosis prone  Glucose can’t get into cells so fat can’t be deoxidized o Autoimmune disease  Don’t know why it happens o Beta cells in pancreas start to kill themselves o Short term consequences  Loss of muscle and excess fat use  ketosis  It thinks its starving so it goes into body’s storage and breaks down muscles and fat  If uncontrolled can lead to coma and death o *** Look at chart of type 1 and 2 of diabetes on canvas ***


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