Week #6: An Overview of Photosynthesis
Week #6: An Overview of Photosynthesis BIO 183
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Huryn on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 183 at North Carolina State University taught by Dr. Miriam Ferzli in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Intro to Bio Cell/ Micro in Biological Sciences at North Carolina State University.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Anna Huryn Week #6: BIO 183 Dr. Miriam Ferzli Photosynthesis Photosynthesis = the conversion of light energy into sugar by plants Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts, which are located in the leaves of plants, they are what give plants their green color Chlorophyll = the green pigment located within the chloroplasts Chloroplasts are mainly found in the cells of the mesophyll Mesophyll = the tissue in the interior of the leaf A typical mesophyll cell has about 30-40 chloroplasts Organelle Definition stomata Microscopic pores where carbon dioxide enters the leaf and oxygen leaves Stroma The dense fluid within the chloroplast thylakoid An elaborate system of interconnected membranous sacs grana Stacks of thylakoid sacs Anna Huryn Week #6: BIO 183 Dr. Miriam Ferzli Photosynthesis can be summarized by this equation: 6 CO 2 12 H O 2 Light Energy → C H O +66 12+ 6 H O 2 2 There are two stages in photosynthesis: light reactions (the “photo” part of photosynthesis) and the Calvin Cycle (the synthesis part of photosynthesis) Light Reactions (Overview): The light reactions convert solar energy (sunlight) into chemical energy Light absorbed by chlorophyll drives a transfer of electrons and hydrogen from water to an acceptor call NADP+ which temporarily stores the energized electrons Water splits in the process, and thus it is the light reactions of photosynthesis that give off oxygen gas as a by-product The light reactions use solar power to reduce NADP+ to NADPH by adding a pair of electrons along with a hydrogen nucleus (H+) The light reactions also generate ATP using chemiosmosis to power the addition of a phosphate group to ATP Photophosphorylation = the addition of a phosphate group to ATP Chemiosmosis = an energy coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP The light reactions produce no sugar, only chemical energy in the form of NADH, a source of electrons (reducing power) and ATP Calvin Cycle (Overview): The cycle begins by incorporating CO_2 from the air into organic molecules already present in the chloroplast Carbon fixation = the initial incorporation of carbon into organic compounds The Calvin cycle then reduces the fixed carbon to carbohydrate by the addition of electrons The reducing agent is provided by NADPH To convert CO_2 to carbohydrate the Calvin cycle also requires energy in the form of ATP which is generated by the light reactions The Calvin cycle makes the sugar
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