KIN 527, Ch. 4 notes
KIN 527, Ch. 4 notes KIN 527
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Xxxxxxx on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 527 at University of New Hampshire taught by Eric Morris in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Scientific Foundations of Health and Fitness in Kinesiology at University of New Hampshire.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Chapter 4 Notes▯ ▯ Improving Muscular Strength and Endurance▯ • Resting energy expenditure: the amount of energy expended during all sedentary activities. Also called resting metabolic rate. Includes the energy required to drive the heart and respiratory muscles and to build and maintain body tissues. **Strength training increases resting energy expenditure**▯ Muscle action: the shortening of a skeletal muscle (causing movement) or the lengthening of a • skeletal muscle (resting movement) ▯ • Fascia: a thin layer of connective tissue that surrounds the muscle▯ • Tendon:sa ﬁbrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone▯ • Motor unit: a motor nerve and all of the muscle ﬁbers it controls▯ ▯ Three Major Caterogies for Skeletal Muscle Exercise▯ • Isotonic: a type of exercise in which there is movement of a body part. Most exercise or sports skills are isotonic exercise. Also called DYNAMIC exercise. (lifting a weight)▯ • Isometric: a type of exercise in which muscular tension is developed but the body part does not move. Also called STATIC exercise. (pressing palms together)▯ • Isokinetic: a type of exercise that can include concentric or eccentric muscle actions performed at a constant speed using a specialized machine that provides resistance throughout the range of motion (the amount of movement possible at a joint)▯ Concentric muscle action: action in which the muscle develops tension as it shortens against • resistance and/or gravity. Also called POSITIVE WORK. (upward movement of arm during bicep curl)▯ • Eccentric muscle action: action in which the muscle develops tension as it lengthens while controlling the movement with gravity. Also called NEGATIVE WORK. (lowering motion during a bicep curl)▯ ▯ Three Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers▯ • Slow-twitch ﬁbers: red muscle ﬁbers that contract slowly and are highly resistant to fatigue. These ﬁbers have the capacity to produce large quantities of ATP aerobically. ▯ • Fast-twitch ﬁbers: white muscle ﬁbers that contract rapidly but fatigue quickly. These ﬁbers have a low aerobic capacity and produce ATP anaerobically.▯ • Intermediate-ﬁbers: muscle ﬁbers with a combination of the characteristics of fast-twitch and slow-twitch ﬁbers. They contract rapidly and are fatigue resistant because they have well- developed aerobic capacity.▯ ▯ ▯ • Fiber Recruitment: the process of involving more muscle ﬁbers to increase muscular force (when you walk you only use 30% of your leg’s muscle ﬁbers, when you run or lift weights with leg force, you need to recruit more ﬁbers)▯ • Muscle Strength is determined by two factors: the size of the muscle and the number of ﬁbers recruited during the contraction. (The more muscle ﬁbers stimulated, the greater the total muscle force generated.)▯ • one-repetition maximum (1 RM) test: measurement of the maximum amount of weight that can be lifted at one time.▯ • push up test: ﬁtness test designed to evaluate endurance of shoulder and arm muscles.▯ • sit-up test: a test to evaluate abdominal and hip muscle endurance.▯ • curl-up test: a test to evaluate abdominal muscle endurance.▯ progressive resistance exercise(PRE): application of the overload principle to strength and • endurance exercise programs▯ • speciﬁcity of training: the concept that the development of muscular strength and endurance, as well as cardiorespiratory endurance, is speciﬁc to both the muscle group exercised and the training intensity.▯ • Hypertrophy: an increase in muscle ﬁber size (which results in an increased muscle size)▯ • Hyperplasia: an increase in the number of muscle ﬁbers▯ • Valsalva Maneuver: breath holding during an intense muscle contraction; can reduce blood ﬂow to brain and cause dizziness and fainting. NOT RECOMMENDED▯ • Set: the number of repetitions performed consecutively without resting.▯ • Starter phase: begining phase of an exercise program; the goal is to build a base for further physical conditioning.▯ • Slow progression phase: the second phase of an exercise program. The goal of this phase is to increase muscle strength beyond the starter phase.▯ • Maintenance phase: the third phase of an exercise program. The goal of this phase is to maintain the increase in strength obtained during the ﬁrst two phases.▯ • Beneﬁts of Strength Training: reduce lower back pain, reduce the incidence of exercise- related injuries, decrease the incidence of osteoporosis, help maintain functional capacity.