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PSYC 2110 2/17 Notes

by: AnnaCiara

PSYC 2110 2/17 Notes 2110

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Exam 2 material
Psychology of Human Sexuality
Seth Kalichman
Class Notes
PSYC 2110
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by AnnaCiara on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2110 at University of Connecticut taught by Seth Kalichman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at University of Connecticut.


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Date Created: 02/13/16
PSYC 2110 Exam 2 Notes 2/17/2016 4:00:00 PM Human Sexual Arousal and Response Models of sexual arousal: interaction of mind and body Distinguishing between desire and arousal  desire: what initiates you to act  arousal: physiological response to external cue as well as bodily sensations CNS -central nervous system brain, important for sensations, decision making, how something feels-the amount and intensity of stimulation, interpretation PNS - peripheral nervous system spinal cord is important in sexual response  there are spinal cord responses Mind-body interactions in sexual arousal  diagram that illustrates interactions in handouts Dual control model  divide into peripheral and control systems  Balance between inhibition and excitation  balance between the sexual tipping point  Erick Janssen and John Bancroft of the Kinsey institute (IU)  physiological and organic issues and psychosocial, cultural and behavioral issues  provided sexual stimuli and measured physiological arousal (plesythmograph - for measuring male arousal - goes around penis and measures incoming blood flow and for female-photo sensitive lamp that goes into vagina that illuminates and captures light and measures blood flow in the vaginal walls) Masters and Johnson  Direct observation and controlled measurements  4 phase model (different than STAGES which implies discrete events ending for another to start) o phases because people go through at dif time intervals and can go in both directions  4 phases for male: the male sexual response cycle o 1) excitement - occurs early in sexual stimulation, is beginning of processes that drive entire thing 1- vasocongestion (engorgement of blood into vascular tissue) and 2- neuromuscular tension  blood flow increase into genital region  exiting blood flow decreases  start of the male erection - as blood flow increased in corpra cavernosa and exiting blood flow decreases  testes elevate  positioned closer to body o 2) Plateau  with continued sexual stimulation, excitement levels off  continued vasocongestion and neuromuscular tension (myotonia) and stimulation and rhythmic tensing of muscles  penis reaches full erection  testes enlarge and turn  swelling of the glans (also during orgasm) o 3) Orgasm  more neuromuscular tension  sudden peak after plateau  physiologic release of vasocongestion and neuromuscular tension  rhymic contractions of glands and smooth muscles  ejaculation typically occurs and typically occurs during this phase  orgasm and ejaculation can happen on their own without the other  expulation of the seminal fluid  testes are fully elevated now  contraction of vas deferens, ejaculatory muscles, prostate and anus  swelling of the glans o 4) Resolution  return to the pre-excitement state  increased exiting blood flood  neuromuscular tension decreasing  scrotum relaxes, scrotum drops  erection disappears o Refractory period  occurs after orgasm  recovery time before can return to resting state  can be seconds to hours before can start the cycle again  gets longer with age  different for each individual and in certain contexts  Models of human sexual response  Kaplan's 3 phase model o 1-Desire phase  psychological o 2-Vasocongestive phase ~excitement and plateau  in pelvic region  increased muscular tension in body o 3-orgasmic-release phase ~orgasm and resolution  reversal of vasocongestion  release of muscular tension o wanted to point out that master and Johnson didn't mention how desire is connected to arousal (linking mind to physiology response) Female Sexual response cycle  1) excitement phase o vasocongestion and neuromuscular tension o increases vaginal lubrication (most apparent) can change like erection (increase or decresase) o straining and lengthening of inner 1/3 of vagina o uterus is pulled upward o labia (majora, minora and clitoris) enlarge because they are engorged with blood o nipple becomes erect, superficial veins become more visible, size increase of breast  2) Plateau phase o excitement processes continue o swelling in the outer 1/3 of the vagina  collapsing down of the vaginal walls o forms an orgasmic platform o inner 2/3 of vagina continue to extend o clitoris starts to retract under clitoral hood o heart rate, breath rate and blood pressure increase o changes in the breasts  can be slight increase in nipple size (due to changes in vasocon. and neuro. tension) o blushing of breasts  3) orgasm o musclular contraction in vaginal walls and uterus o heart rate and blood pressure peak  4) resolution phase o return o uterus returns to pre arousal position o changes in vaginal walls return to prearousal o clitoris was pulled back under hood and now is relaxed  3 distinct patterns all normal all occur (response cycles) o likely to experience all three or one more than other o no refractory period o 1- excitement, plataeu, orgasm orgasm resolution o 2- excitement, up and down plateau, no orgasm, resolution o 3- fast excitement straight to orgasm then resolution orgasmal platform and enlargement of male penile glans seals penis in vagina  uterus moves to pick up sperm Intimacy-based model of female sexual response cycle  emotional and physical satisfaction-->emotional intimacy-*-> sexual stimuli--*>sexual arousal-- *>arousal and sexual desire--> emotional and physical satisfaction  * spontaneous sexual drive Graffenberg spot  about 1/3 of the way into the vaginal on anterior wall  near edge of orgasmic platform  high innervated structure  small but plays important role in female sexual arousal Kegel exercises and sexual response  wavelike contractions of uterus  muscular contractions of outer third of vaginal and anus  can strengthen muscles of pelvic girdle sexual response by Kegel exercise o can be important for sexual response but also bladder control o part of sex therapy  voluntary contracting muscles in pelvic girdle (men can do them too) Hormones  big role is sexual response  pituitary gland and adrenal glands affects ovaries and testes Effects of Aging on Sexual response  may even be more important with aging 2/17/2016 4:00:00 PM Sexuality in Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)  Psychosexual stages: the Freudism psychosexual stages of development  Model of the personality is central to this idea of the stages  3 elements of our personality in constant interaction o 1) Ego - secondary process, reality principle, conscious o 2) Id- primary process, pleasure principle (meeting needs however possible), primitive part of our personality, primarily unconscious, impulsive (almost on what drives us and what our instincts are) o 3) Super ego- perfect principle, social relations, moralistic (your moral self that looks at what is right and wrong), ego ideal, conscience  in contrast with Id because look at morals when getting what you need  2 parts of self o thanatos - dark side that is destructive, death instinct o libido- life giving part, life instinct Development: psychosexual stages (not phases)  Oral (birth-1 year) o baby putting stuff in it's mouth o exploring the world through sensation o partially because of teething and suckling reflex o grounded in survival o we develop a sense of indulgence or frustration o we become an optimist or pessimist o passive or manipulative o set up diacotomy o overfed-become indulgent person o underfed- frustration  Anal (1-3 years old) o inital independence o more communicative o focusing on toilet training o pleasure and gratification during toilet training o control of anal sphincter is important feature at this stage o toilet training is critical to social developing o a time we could develop stubbornness or messy-ness or punctuality vs tardiness o meticulousness vs vagueness o people who are overindulged (over attended to) in their toilet training they are "anal" they have rigidity and punctuality over-attention to detail later in life  Phallic (3-5 years old) o develop a very real sense of independence o time when we learn the culturally expected things o identifying with same sex of parent o Oedipal complex  little boy has to switch with identifying with mother to identifying with father to learn culturally expectations for men  father experienced as aggressor before this point to the little boy (both competing for mother)  get over castration fear o little girls don't have to switch, stay identifying with their mother  in competition with mother for father's attention and intensifies during this stage (electric complex)  never really gets resolved  penis envy - unconscious jealousy for little girls to have for little boys who have more power than them  freud's theory was unable to explain female development Fundamental aspects of personality set(fixed) by age 5  essential trail development is complete Latency period  quiescence which lasts approximately until puberty  psychosexual quiet time  social mastery  stepping out to broader relationships Genital (puberty onward)  wet dreams can occur  get reproductive maturity  outward projection of libido Translation by British psychiatrists may have made Freud's work more biological than he intended  there is a german word for instinct but he never used it but that's how it was translated  really he meant "drive" Erik Erikson (1902-1994)  psychosocial stages  did the best work on adolescence  was friends with freud  said freud missed an aspect of people  8 stages of man w/ increasing complexity lifespan developmental theory o trust vs mistrust INFANT o autonomy vs shame and doubt TODDLER 2-3 year olds o initiate vs guilt PRE-SCHOOLER 3-5 year olds o industry vs inferiority GRADE SCHOOLER 6-12 years old, overlays with latency period industry=basic social tasks or chores or homework, our role in our family and school o identity vs role confusion TEENAGER this is the stage erik focused on - coined the term "identity crisis" o intimacy vs isolation YOUNG ADULT o generativity vs stagnation MIDDLE AGE ADULT o integrity vs despair OLDER ADULT o you acquire one of these or the other then you can LEARN to achieve the other o it's not fixed at 5 like how freud said o erikson says you can change  psychosocial moratorium o place to experiment and try things o ex: college  role experimentation o try things out during adolescence to form our identity o if we don't experiment to try to figure out our role then we experience role confusion (the negative outcome of this stage)  masturbation is nearly universal during adolescence  sexual orientation and gender identity likely emerge during adolescence  sexual experimentation often occurs during adolescence  adolescents likely have poor judgments of real consequences o no experience o exploring and experimenting but often seen as "risk takers"  young adult (18-30s) o intimacy vs isolation o intimacy is forming family, bonding and formulating a career o intimacy is about the close relationships (marriage and family relationships including kids) o successful resolution for the need for intimacy o sharing of self is intimacy (must have good identity formation to have good intimacy)  Generativity vs stagnation (40-50ish) o having family in terms of kids and careers o generativity - having sense that time is limited, consider legacy that will be left behind o mid life crisis  Old age (60 and up) o integrity and despair o life review o feeling good about accomplishments in life = integrity o despair comes with regrets about life BF Skinner  Learning theory  sexual development is same as other developments Social Cognitive theory  Albert Bandura (1925 - now)  wrote a book on moral disengagement  how people can do bad things and live with themselves  behavior is regulated through reciprocal determinism  E= environmental manipulation  B= behaviors with intended consequences  P= self-talk and altered outcome expectancies  learning by observation o children imitate 2/17/2016 4:00:00 PM Sexuality and Aging  there are cultural differences in sexuality with aging  high variations  age gaps between partners vary  social status is big part of partner selection in USA  strong preference for females to have male partners to have higher social status o can be opposite  special sexual problems and patterns of aging  things go more slowly, general slowing in development and sexual response o developmental pattern that is normal but can sometimes be seen as a problem (ex menopause)  nothing grows as fast as fetus and childhood growth Sexual effects of illness  illnesses - high blood pressure and diabetes  side effects of medications


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