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PSY 150A1 Ch 4 Lecture & Textbook Notes

by: Lorelei Wong

PSY 150A1 Ch 4 Lecture & Textbook Notes PSY 150A1

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Psychlogy > PSY 150A1 > PSY 150A1 Ch 4 Lecture Textbook Notes
Lorelei Wong
GPA 3.43
Structure of Mind & Behavior
Dr. Adam Lazarewicz

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About this Document

Ch 4 Lecture & Textbook Notes
Structure of Mind & Behavior
Dr. Adam Lazarewicz
Class Notes
Psychology, Structure of Mind & Behavior
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lorelei Wong on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Adam Lazarewicz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Structure of Mind & Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 02/13/16
PSY 150A1 With Prof Lazarewicz Lecture Notes Chapter 4 Sensation amp Perception How do we process the outside world How are our perceptions of the outside world created 0 There is often a mismatch between sensation and perception Ex optical illusions o Sensation sensory receptors taking in info to create an awareness of surroundings and world 0 Perception organization interpretation and understanding of sensations how they translate into what you think Bottomup processing starts with sensory input l perception Ex see something make sense of it Topdown processing the knowledge expectations or beliefs that guide perceptions Ex seeing what you expect to see 0 Basic Principles of perception 0 Absolute threshold smallest amount of sensory stimuli needed to notice that it39s there 0 Subliminal sensation quotbelow thresholdquot sensory signal not registered by conscious awareness Priming tendency to for recent eventswords to come to mind easier than others in uences perception Ex perception of a ctional character 0 IV participants given list of either positive or negative words then all given same story of a man who climbs mountains sails seas on a row boat takes part in derbies DV participant39s liking of the man in the story 0 Results people given positive list of words liked man people given negative list of words didn39t like man 0 Sensory adaptation due to constant stimuli there is a decrease in sensitivity to stimuli o Transduction transition of sensory info to neural impulses Perceptual Adaptation 0 Adjust to new modalities of perception Ex glasses that ip left right and vise versa top l bottom and vise versa Wore for 8 days 0 First few days everything daily tasks was nearly impossible became sick amp depressed By day 8 could walk without running into things could reach in the correct direction Readapted quickly after taking off glasses 0 Visual Sensation amp Perception 0 Light waves re ected from or produced by objects 0 PSY 150A1 With Prof Lazarewicz Amplitude brightness larger amplitude brighter color how long a wave is how long a cycle of a wave is Wavelength hue short wavelength blue long wavelength red height of wave how tall midline to top or bottom 0 Structures of the eye Cornea transparent covering to protect the eye 0 Ex don39t scratch it It hurts amp blurs your vision what you touch taking out contact lenses Pupil small opening that allows light in 0 Ex what dilates when someone39s high or drunk lris colored muscle that adjusts the size of the pupil Ex eye color area Lens bends light to focus the image on the back of the eye 0 Ex lenses always reverse an image Retina inner back wall of the eye transduction Rods D black amp white dim light Cones D color detailed vision 0 Ex collects light and colors vision amp peripheral vision Optic nerve sends image cast on retina to brain 0 Color vision Trichromatic theory of color vision combos of neural impulses from 3 kinds of cones that respond to different wavelengths Long red 0 Medium green yellow 0 Short blue Opponentprocess theory of color vision 3 cones each are responsible for a pair of colors Opponent colors 0 Redgreen o Yellowblue o Blackwhite Presence of one of these pairs inhibits the perception of the other 0 Afterimages Image left behind that you can see after staring at a picture for a long time the opponent colors of the picture 0 Depth perception ability to see objects in 3D D judge the distance of something Images that strike retina are 2D but we see in 3D Sensation vs perception This is partly innate at the least l we know how to from the age of a baby Visual cliff the edge of something we can see it instinct have us aware of it not going to just go walk off a cliff Perceptual Process PSY 150A1 With Prof Lazarewicz Perceptual constancy when sensations change but our mind keeps an object the same Topdown processing of information the constancy is based on past experiences Ex size and shape of objects Schema organizes and interprets info with a concept or framework for it Ex email categoriesfolders how we expect men39s faces to look comparatively to women39s Attention narrowing in on speci c info so that we can understand it better selecting a part to focus on Sensation D attention D perception amp consciousness Only partially within conscious control 2 types of attention Selective attention purposely choosing info to focus on and info to ignore Popout different stimulus grabs attention from a group of information Change blindness failure to recognize a large difference in a visual scene because of focus on a particular thing or concept Stroop task nding and naming a color when they match gets harder to do when they switch colors and names 0 Ex Red Blue Green Yellow Purple Orange Red Blue Green Yellow Purple Orange Synesthesia o Synesthesia stimulus of one sense leading to an automatic stimulus of another sense Notjust crossmetaphors quotloud shirtquot quotbitter windquot 1 in every 20 people has it Not considered a mental illness Runs in families Due to increased connections between parts of the brain structures that are physically close to each other 0 Ex letternumber recognition green amp color processing red 0 Ex tonessongs associated with speci c colors 0 Ex wordssounds associated with speci c taste ldeasthesia sensory object triggers and idea or concept Ex sequences numbers days months years etc associated with personality traits Ex lettersnumbers associated with speci c colors Ex associations vary but there are some common pairings 0 A red 0 O whiteblack S yellow PSY 150A1 With Prof Lazarewicz 0 Testing synesthesia Testretest reliability nding the same results at multiple different times over a long period of time make sure they39re not faking it or pretending Synesthetes 90 accuracy and reliability Nonsynesthetes 3040 reliability even when told retesting will happen and to remember their previous answers Textbook Notes Psychophysics study of physical aspects of stimuli relating to psychological experiences of them Sound air moecues moving due to vibration Eardrum part of the ear that vibrates when sound waves hit it Cochlea uid lled coi tube in the ear that responds to sound by vibrating Basilar membrane runs through cochlea that vibrates divides upper and lower chambers that contain the sense for sound Semicircular canals tubelike structures that contain uid and sosh around in them helps brain measure sense of stability and orientation Skin senses touch pressure temperature and pain


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