infancy chapter 3 notes
infancy chapter 3 notes Psyc3260
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc3260 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Bourgeois in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Infancy in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Infancy chapter 3: the fetus and newborn: Health Risk 02/13/2016 ▯ 1/6 couples suffer from infertility The inability to conceive successfully after trying for at least a year ▯ Women- failure to ovulate ▯ 1/20 men- genetic mutations or environmental/ social causes ▯ To increase fertility sex must be a relaxed experiences ▯ When unsuccessful IVF: 60,000- 1 million o Failure rate 30% Embryo cryopreservation: ova are removed and frozen; to preserve eggs Sperm injections: if sperm are too weak to penetrate (variation of IVF) Surrogate mother Donors ▯ Many new- unsolved societal issues exist now due to fertility technology Cloning Spontaneous abortions ▯ Syndromes (single genes) Fragile x- (sex linked) o Caused by an abnormal gene on bottom end of chromosomes —causes mental retardations Prader- willi o Low muscle tones obesity short small hands and low IQ Williams: o High social ability; low IQ Marfans: o Weakened heart mild bone deformities, eye lens problems PKU o Cannot properly metabolize Phenylalanine ( amino acid) results in nervous disorder—can be treated with diet change. Cystic Fibrosis o Clogged lungs leads to infection and death in young adults (newborns are screened for this) Tay- Sachs o Enzyme deficiency deterioration of mental and physical abilities (few live past 5) Sickle Cell: o Red blood cells—clotting—leads to mental retardations and heart/ kidney problems Huntington’s: o Loss of memory and motor control. Delayed onset, incurable Familiar Alzheimer’s: o Brain deterioration and los of social and cognitive control ▯ Chromosomal disorders rd Monosomy: an abnormality of the 23 chromosome pair o Turner syndrome: Female has one x (lacks sex determination) Trisomy: an extra chromosome rd o Kleinfelters: 23 chromosome (xxy) male has female behavioral characteristics o Down syndrome: 21 . more common in older women. Can be screened for with amniocentesis Teratology: study of birth defects o Environmental cause of disorder= teratogen o Effect of toxic agent on fetus depends on point in pregnancy, amount of exposure, and length of exposure Fetal alcohol syndrome: mental retardation, facial abnormalities, hyperactivity, cognitive deficits, premature birth, lower birth weight, heart defects o Effect continuing as late as 14 years old Smoking during pregnancy causes respiratory problems growth retardation antisocial behavior learning disabilities. Predisposed to addiction. ** Effects even if EITHER parent smokes Substance abusing mothers birth-addicted babies—often receive less adequate care. ▯ Chorionic villus sampling: diagnose wide range of disorders. Can be done during 1 trimester. May be safety risks Maternal serum alpha- fetoprotein: test mother’s blood. Safe. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis: tests zygote before its implanted Elective abortions: planned parenthood v. Casey o Viability: can it survive on its own o Abortion decreases with access to contraception Majority of children born with deficits are results of teen pregnancies ▯ Morning sickness (NVP) related to biochemical changes- o Infant of women who experience NVP have increased cognitive processing o May be adaptive. Keep women from eating certain things o Importance micronutrients—folic acid, vitamin B9, zinc, iodine Screening: any immediate medical needs Neurological assessments: test for problems in central and peripheral systems APGAR score: # 1 screening test ▯ Prenatal perinatal (I month before till 1 month after) neonatal (till 4-6 weeks) Perinatal problems derived from disorders of delivery infections low blood sugar levels ▯ Premature o Short term- Immediate difficulties adapting o Long term- On average smaller (often show “catch up” growth) Increased stress on family o ICU- 15-50 days After 24 hours chances of infant death is extremely rare Mortality rates increase with lower SES ▯ ▯
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