Intro to Human Bio - Week 4 Notes
Intro to Human Bio - Week 4 Notes 2862
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Riley Notetaker on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2862 at University of Wisconsin Green Bay taught by Dr. Marker in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Biology in Biology at University of Wisconsin Green Bay.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
IntrotoHumanBio FALLSEMESTER2016 INSTRUCTOR:DR.Marker MarkerJ@uwgb.edu Disclaimer: Part X is on its way. Due to a work-scheduling conflict I was working during class. Expect part X early this week. Contacriley.email@example.com you have any questions. Human Bio Notes XI ________________________________________________________________________________ Miscellaneous notes and reminders Once Cells have divided, their DNA is different because it now has chromosomes. Again, 1/2 of a Chromosome is a Chromatid Both Chromatid halfs are exactly the same. When the Chromosomes match up together in the middle of the cell, Cancer is abnormal cell division combined with abnormal cells. Chemotherapy targets the rapidly dividing cells. ________________________________________________________________________________ Tissues, Organs, Systems I. Tissue - biological “material” made up of cells (and cell products) which has a specific structure and function 1 A. Epithelial Tissue B. Holding it together involves…? 1. Interlocking proteins (velcro effect) 2. Intercellular “glues”, e.g. hyaluronic acid (CHO and protein( 3. social types of cell to cell junctions, e.g., gap junction 4. Epithelial sheets - a. coverings of external surfaces, e.g., outer layer of the skin b. linings of “hollow” organs, e.g. stomach c. made from several types of epithelial cells, e.g. cuboidal d. rapid cell division needed to replace “warn” tissue is C. Connective Tissue 1. Function - bind, support, and protect other tissue and body parts 2. General Makeup - the “matrix” consists of… a. cells (fibroblasts, fat cells, osteocytes) b. ground substance (varies in viscosity or “thickness”) c. fibers (embedded within, the ground substance) 3. There are a variety of types of connective tissue - the properties are a function of the nature of the ground substance and fibers 2 a. loose (soft and pliable), e.g. fat and fascia (a “saran wrap” tissue found throughout the body) b. dense - (strong and supportive), e.g. tendons (which attach to muscle) and ligaments (which attached to bone), cartilage (e.g.) vertebral discs) and bone. c. “free” connective tissue - blood cells and their “parent” tissue, e.g. bone marrow. D. Muscle Tissue - contractile tissue, i.e. cells, shorten 1. Skeletal - involved in movement and support of the “skeletal” aspect of the body 2. Smooth - involved in movement of c various internal organs, e.g., the “milking” action of smooth muscle moving food through the intestines 3. Cardiac - heart muscle or myocardium is a special muscle tissue that allows rapid conduction and contraction between muscle cells, i.e., extensive nerve supply not required. E. Nerve Tissue- 1. Neurons are the fundamental cell of nervous tissue. Special “excitable” tissue capable of responding to an/or propagating (moving) an impulse (message) 2. Glial cells are important for support of neuron function F. Pseudo tissue types, e.g. liver tissue or lung tissue. Calling it tissue is descriptive, though technically not correct. G. Interstitial fluid - the fluid between tissues (cells) 3 II. Organ - An organ is actually a combination of tissue resulting in a body part with it’s own, specific function. Lungs are for breathing, the heart is for blood circulation, etc. III. Systems - much like tissue results in organs, multiple organs result in systems. These systems have incredibly important functions for the body as a whole. An example would be the lungs and heart creating the cardiovascular system. “Sir Scrudmen” (what all the above adds up to) IV. These cells and the systems they create, are all interdependent of each other. Earlier in the course there was the idea of Homeostasis : a balance and consistency of the human body that is incredibly important for life. These systems are directly responsible for this. A. These systems are constantly working together to maintain this ideal state of balance. “Thermostats” such as blood level and glucose level are all part of this same homeostasis. B. Almost all of our physiology is depended on maintaining these conditions, necessary for the balance. C. The body actually changes to try and maintain this stasis. For example, sweating is a change designed to keep temperature around normal body levels. (around 37 degrees celsius) 4
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