EXSC 224, Week 5 Notes
EXSC 224, Week 5 Notes Exsc 224
Popular in Anatomy and Physiology 224
Popular in Education and Teacher Studies
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jane Warther on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Exsc 224 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Thompson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 224 in Education and Teacher Studies at University of South Carolina.
Reviews for EXSC 224, Week 5 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/13/16
EXSC 224 Chp. 14 2/11/2016 Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) o ANS consists of motor neurons that: Innervate smooth and cardiac muscle and glands Make adjustments to ensure optimal support for body activities Operate via subconscious control o Other names Involuntary nervous system General visceral motor system Central nervous system (CNS) Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Sensodivisionrent) Motor (efferent) division Somatic Autonomic nervous systematic nervous system (ANS) Sympathetic Parasympathetic division division Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems o The two system differ in Effectors Efferent pathways (and their neurotransmitters) Target organ responses to neurotransmitters Effectors o Somatic nervous system Skeletal muscles o ANS Cardiac muscles Smooth muscle Glands Divisions of the ANS o 1. Sympathetic division o 2. Parasympathetic division o Dual innervation Almost all visceral organs are served by both divisions, but they cause opposite effects Role of the Parasympathetic Division o Promotes maintenance activities and conserves body energy o Its activity is illustrated in a person who relaxes, reading, after a meal Blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rates are low Gastrointestinal tract activity is high Pupils are constricted and lenses are accommodated for close vision Role of sympathetic division o Mobilizes the body during activity; is the “fight or flight” system o Promotes adjustments during exercise, or when threatened Blood flow is shunted to skeletal muscles and heart Bronchioles dilate Liver releases glucose Sympathetic(Thoracolumbar) Division o There are 23 paravertebral ganglia in the sympathetic trunk (chain) 3 cervical 11 thoracic 4 lumbar 4 sacral 1 coccygeal Three pathways of sympathetic innervation o 1. Synapse at the same level o 2. Synapse at a higher or lower level o 3. Synapse in a distant collateral ganglion anterior to the vertebral column Cholinergic Receptors Adrenergic Receptors Interactions of the Autonomic Divisions o Most visceral organs have dual innervation o Dynamic antagonism allows for precise control of visceral activity Sympathetic division Increases heart and respiratory rates, and inhibits digestion and elimination Parasympathetic division Decreases heart and respiratory rates, and allows for digestion and the discarding of wastes Sympathetic Tone o Sympathetic division controls blood pressure, even at rest o Sympathetic tone (vasomotor tone) Keeps the blood vessels in a continual state of partial constriction o Sympathetic fibers fie More rapidly to constrict blood vessels and cause blood pressure to rise Less rapidly to prompt vessels to dilate to decrease blood pressure Parasympathetic Tone o Parasympathetic division normally dominates the heart and smooth muscle of digestive and urinary tract organs Slows the heart Dictates normal activity levels of the digestive and urinary tracts o The sympathetic division can override these affects during times of stress Cooperative Effects o Best seen in control of the external genitalia o Parasympathetic fibers cause vasodilation; are responsible for erection of the penis or clitoris o Sympathetic fibers cause ejaculation of semen in males and reflex contraction of the female’s vagina Unique Roles of the Sympathetic Division o The adrenal medulla, sweat glands, erector pili muscles, kidneys, and most blood vessels receive only sympathetic fibers o The sympathetic division controls Thermoregulatory responses to heat Release of renin from the kidneys Metabolic effects Increases metabolic rates of cells Raises blood glucose levels Mobilizes fats for use as fuels Localized Versus Diffuse Effects o Parasympathetic division: short-lived, highly localized control over effectors o Sympathetic division: long-lasting, bodywide effects Is inactivated more slowly than ACh NE and epinephrine are released into the blood and remain there until destroyed by the liver
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'