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by: Graham Notetaker

Biodiversity Bio131

Marketplace > Elon University > Biology > Bio131 > Biodiversity
Graham Notetaker
Elon University
GPA 3.5

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Week of feb 7th notes, gettin' ready for quiz 2 on monday!
David Vandermast
Class Notes
Biology, Biodiversity, Science
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Graham Notetaker on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio131 at Elon University taught by David Vandermast in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Biodiversity in Biology at Elon University.


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Date Created: 02/13/16
Week of Feb 7th Notes, Quiz 2 prep    What we’re doing Feb 8th:  ● Phylogenetic trees document the evolutionary relationships among  organisms  ○ Evidence: Fossil record   ● Adaptive radiation are a major PATTERN in the history of life   ○ Ex.  Darwin's finches    ● Mass extinctions happen all the time, and provide for a shift in the  hierarchy of life     Phylogenetic Trees:  ● Phylogeny: ​ The evolutionary history of a group of organisms  ● Reconstructs the history of life, uses the fossil record. Shows  ancestor­descendant relationships.  ● What makes a phylogenetic tree?  ○ Branch: represents a population through time  ○ Node: The point where two branches diverge, represents a time  when an ancestral species split into two or more descendant  species   ○ Tip (terminal node): the endpoint of a branch, represents a  group that is living today or ended in extinction  ● Microevolution: When a population makes small changes over time   ● We analyze morphological and/or genetic characteristics to i nfer  relationships       The cladistic approach:  ● A clade includes an ancestor and all its descendants    ● Focuses on ​ synapomorphies​ , or the shared derived characteristics of  the species under study  ● Synapomorphies allow us to recognize valid clades, or monophyletic  groups  ● Clades can be nested within a larger clade  ● Types of Clades:  ○ Monophyletic clade: a collection of organisms, includes a ​n  ancestor and all its descendants  ○ Paraphyletic clade: a grouping that consists of an ancestor and  some, but not all of the descendants (use pics for the three  types here)  ○ Polyphyletic clade: grouping that includes numerous types of  organisms that lack a common ancestor          Evolution of features:   ● BIG DIFFERENCE BETWEEN​  HOMOLOGOUS ​ STRUCTURES,  AND H​OMOPLASIES​ .  ● Homoplasies: analogous structures...serve the same function, but  evolved separately.  ○  Ex, wings of a bat and bird  ● Homology occurs when traits are similar due to shared ancestry,  (wings of a bat, human arm, cat limb)  ● Symplesiomorphy: an ​ ancestral character or trait state shared by two  ormore ​taxa.  ● A derived trait is one that was modified from the ancestor.  ● Convergent evolution: Natural selection favors similar solutions to the  problems posed by a similar way of life (dolphins and sharks look  alike, but don’t share a common ancestor)    Feb 10th    Hox Genes  ● Homeobox genes: Master regulatory genes. ​ All organisms have this!  ● Evidence:   ○ Groups of Hox genes are organized in a similar way in many  organisms   ○ 180 base pair sequence  ○ Products of ​Hox​ genes have similar functions  ○ Messing with these WILL KILL YOU, that’s why no evolutionary  mutations or variations i​ox​ genes exist today(Highly  evolutionary conserved)              Fossil depth  ● Tells us about lifestyle, processes that occurred when the organism  was alive  ● Fossilization i​xceedingly rare  ○ 1 out of every 200,000,000 fossilized  ● Limitations of the Fossil record:  ○ Habitat bias: occurs because organisms that live in areas where  sediments are actively being deposited are more likely to be  fossilized   ○ Taxonomic bias​ : some organisms are more likely to decay  slowly/quicker  ○ Temporal bias:​ more recent fossils are more common to find  ○ Abundance bias:  the abundant and widespread organisms that  are present for a long time are more likely to leave a fossil    ● Niche: describes the range of resources that a species can use/  tolerate  ● Genetic diversity (heterozygous, multiple alleles code for more than  one thing?) allows for variation in an organism (Darwin's finches)  ●   Why does Adaptive Radiation occur?  ○ Triggered by morphological innovation  ○ New resources/ new ways to exploit resources      Cambrian Explosion:    565­515 mya­ish   ● Sponges, jellyfish, simple worms, 565 mya end of proterozoic  era  ● 3 major fossil assemblages:Doushantuo, Ediacaran, Burgess  shale The presence of these rich deposits makes the fossil  record really complete and accurate.  ○ Doushantuo: China. Precambrian. Found sponges, and  multicellularity, ​animal embryos.​ First animals, sexual  reproduction=greater diversity of life.  ○ Ediacaran: Australia. small soft bodied, sponges, jellyfish,  and other traces of animals. 544­565 mya,​recambrian  ○ Burgess shale fauna: ​Every living animal group is  represented here. Huge increase in size, and diversity.  Predator­prey relationships form.    ●  Punctuated equilibrium:​ A stable, constant and relatively small  rate of change that ipunctuated by a period of great change.    Why so much change so fast?  1. Increased oxygen levels made aerobic respiration more efficient.  2. Evolution of predator prey relationships. Exerted more pressure for  offenders, and predators to be good at what they do.   3. Snowball earth had just melted. New niches mean more new niches.  If you can exploit one new niche, you create a niche for predators/  prey to fill  4. New genes, new body. Mutations increase hox genes that made it  possible for larger more complex bodies to evolve.     Mass extinction: 60% or more of the species are wiped out within 1 million  years. Happens from one dramatic event.    Background Extinctions: Normal rate of extinction. Occurs when normal  environmental changes, emerging diseases, or competition reduces  populations to zero. Results primarily from natural selection.  Evidence for the 6th mass extinctio: Current rate is 100­1000 times the  background rate. Some call it homogenocene.           Fun facts:  ● Human species are 160,000 years old  ● Homo erectus is the ancestor of homo sapien  ● Extant: A species that are currently living  ● “syn” means shared  ● Humans have less than 10% genetic variation   ● Beetles and flowers are two the most diverse species on Earth   ● End­Permian Extinction: Largest mass extinction. over 80% of all life  disappeared    


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