HESC/KNES 342 CH 1
HESC/KNES 342 CH 1 hesc/knes 342
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in Stress Management
Popular in Kinesiology
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Theint Myint on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to hesc/knes 342 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Karen Fazio in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Stress Management in Kinesiology at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Stress Management Ch 1: THE MEANING OF STRESS In this Chapter: n Multiple Meanings of Stress n Responses to Stress n Assessing Stress n The Function of Stress n The Stress Response n Stress Prevention and Management Model Definition of Stress n Stress can be defined as a psychological and physiological reaction to a real or perceived threat that requires some action or resolution n Perception is the key factor in this definition n People will respond differently to the exact same stimuli Multiple Meanings of Stress n Stress can be triggered by a real or imaginary stimulus n Stress is a response that operates on cognitive, behavioral, and biological levels n Stress is a survival mechanism to increase internal awareness of danger and transform all the body’s resources to a heightened state of readiness What’s in a Name? n The word stress is derived from the Middle English stresse, meaning “hardship”, and the Old French estrece, meaning “oppression” n Today’s interpretation of stress was spurred by Canadian biologist Hans Selye n Today, doctors warn about the epidemic of health problems that result from excessive stress How is Stress a Problem? n About 75 to 90 percent of all visits to a primary care physician are because of stress-‐related disorders n Stress is linked to the six leading causes of death in North America n About 90 % of all adults report that they have experienced stress at some time in their lives A Selected History of Stress n Ancient Contributions n Claude Bernard developed the concept of internal environment n Charles Darwin theorized that fear and stress are adaptive mechanisms for survival n Freud developed a theory of psychological disturbance based on the conscious and unconscious fears that motivate behavior n Walter Cannon was the first physiologist to begin talking about stress in the context of emotional responses n Cannon coined the term “the fight-‐or-‐flight response” to describe the stress response that becomes activated during perceived threats n Hans Selye, often recognized as the father of stress research, studied rats under chronic stress conditions n He noticed a consistent pattern of bodily changes emerging (i.e., General Adaptation Syndrome), including an enlargement of the adrenal glands, shrinkage of thymus, and ulceration of the stomach lining Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome n Alarm Stage – Acute stress reactivity characterized by disruption of the body’s homeostasis n Resistance Stage – Presence of the stressor necessitates bodily adaptations and coping mechanisms resulting in stress products n Exhaustion Stage – Prolonged exposure to stressors leads to the depletion of resistance energy resulting in illness or even death n Allostasis and Allostatic Load n Sterling and Eyer coined this term to mean the combined physiological and psychological adaptation to the experience of threats or adversities n McEwen created the concept of allostatic load to describe what happens when the same adaptive system that was designed to protect us actually tears us apart Responses to Stress n People respond to stress in different ways, physiologically, emotionally, cognitively, and systematically n Humans are the only species that worry themselves over imagined fears n Fight-‐or-‐flight response is a survival mechanism with many unique and specific physiological reactions Types of Stress n Short-‐term stress (acute) is activated by sudden threat or danger n Long-‐term stress (chronic) brings on wear-‐and-‐tear of the body n Hyperstress is an excessive amount of stress that overloads the system n Hypostress means inadequate stress to keep the body tuned and ready for action n Selye defined three further terms: distress, neustress, and eustress n Distress is the negative, harmful, destructive type of stress n Neustress is neutral stress having little impact on you n Eustress is good stress, the type that inspires and motivates you Sources of Stress n External sources n Internal sources n The interaction of both internal and external sources. n Physical – when the human body is affected adverse conditions such as sleep deprivation and infections n Psychological – caused by the interpretations of the events in our life; they are determined by our values, beliefs, attitudes, and philosophies of life. n Psychosocial -‐ arises from interactions with people and the society in which you live. n Biochemical -‐ Excessive use of certain substances such as sugar, nicotine, caffeine, alcohol and exposure to substances in the environment Stress Management & Prevention • Stage 1: Life Situations/Chronic Stressors • Stage 2: Perception/Evaluation • Stage 3: Stress Response • Stage 4: Consequences Five principles of stress prevention and management 1. Prevention is more effective than management 2. Small changes can lead to big effects 3. Don’t count on a magic bullet for solving all your stress problems 4. Tailor a program to your own schedule and means 5. Develop a comprehensive plan for stress prevention and management
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