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by: Theint Myint

HESC/KNES 342 CH 5 hesc/knes 342

Theint Myint
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.8

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powerpoint notes
Stress Management
Karen Fazio
Class Notes
Health Science, KNES, HESC, stress, STRESS MANAGEMENT
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Theint Myint on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to hesc/knes 342 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Karen Fazio in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Stress Management in Kinesiology at California State University - Fullerton.

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Date Created: 02/13/16
Chapter  Five:     Individual  and  Cultural  Differences     In  this  Chapter:   n Personality  &  Stress   n Gender  &  Stress   n Culture  &  Stress     Personality  and  Stress   n Personality  is  a  set  of  enduring  and  habitual  psychological  characteristics   n Personality  is  formed  by  both  genetic  and  environmental  influences  and   guides  thoughts,  beliefs,  and  behavior   n State  versus  Trait   – State:  Responses  to  everyday  stress  circumstances   – Trait:  Responses  consistent  to  one’s  style;  known  as  personality;   enduring;  genetic-­‐based   n Patterns  of  Personality  are  Present   n Previous  Experiences  in  Similar  Situations   n Typical  Response   n Coping  Skills  Available   n Personality  Characteristics          For  Discussion:   n Type  A   n Helpless/Hopeless              Learned  Helplessness   n Repressive   n Codependent     Type  A  Personality   n Classic  study  by  Friedman  and  Rosenman  showed  that  some  of  their  patients   would  sit  on  the  edge  of  their  seats  in  the  waiting  room,  while  others   wouldn’t   n Based  on  a  series  of  interviews  with  these  patients,  Friedman  and  Rosenman   developed  a  psychological  profile  of  those  who  sat  on  the  edge  of  their  seats;   the  researchers  labeled  this  type  of  profile  as  being  Type  A   n Intense,  sustained  drive  to  be  goal-­‐directed   n Competitive  attitude  in  almost  every  situation   n Hostility  and  aggressive  behavior   n Strong  desire  for  recognition   n Continuous  involvement  in  multiple  activities   n Always  in  a  rush  to  finish  tasks  as  soon  as  possible   n Impatience  with  self  and  others   n High  level  of  mental  and  physical  alertness       Helpless/Hopeless  Personality   n Learned  helplessness:  Characterized  by  an  external  locus  of  control  response,   not  having  control  over  one’s  fate,  loss  of  motivation  and  hope,  and   depression   n Learned  helplessness  and  PTSD  share  these  characteristics:  Emotional   withdrawal,  passivity,  decreased  motivation,  and  increased  cognitive   difficulty   n Explanatory  style  (Seligman):  A  hopeless  and  helpless  personality  would   regard  a  temporary  setback  as  permanent,  blame  him/herself  for  it,  and   generalize  it  to  other  areas  of  life     n Keep  in  mind  that  some  people  under  learned  helplessness  can  actually   benefit  by  drawing  upon  their  inner  resources  and  becoming  more   committed  and  motivated  to  the  situation     Repressive  Personality   n Typically  displayed  by  someone  who  has  faced  trauma  or  a  severely   disturbing  situation;  the  memories  are  submerged  into  the  unconsciousness,   as  if  it  never  happened   n Some  people,  feeling  particularly  vulnerable  to  life’s  stressors  may  try  to   organize  their  lives  in  such  a  way  to  prevent  or  minimize  things  that  may   upset  their  fragile  world   n Repressive  personality  features  include:   n Planners  who  are  organized,  rule-­‐bound,  and  hate  surprises   n Resort  to  well-­‐tested  pattern  of  behaviors   n Like  to  keep  a  low  profile  and  avoid  conflicts   n Dread  social  disapproval  and  need  social  conformity   n Often,  this  type  of  person  will  over-­‐attribute  their  actions  to  an   internal  locus  of  control   n Inhibit  and  restrict  their  emotional  expression  of  feelings  that  might   be  the  least  bit  upsetting   n May  appear  in  complete  control  and  totally  optimistic   n May  have  blood  pressure  and  cortisol  levels  that  are  significantly   elevated;  impaired  immune  systems     Codependent  Personality   n A  form  of  helplessness,  it  is  a  learned  behavior  characterized  by  a  one-­‐sided,   emotionally  destructive/abusive  relationship   n This  personality  was  discovered  when  studying  alcoholics  and  their  families.   Usually  a  codependent  person  will  have  an  “enabler”  working  for  them,   fueling  their  alcoholic  destructive  behaviors   n The  codependency  exists  between  the  “identified  patient”  (the  one  who   appears  to  have  the  problem)  and  the  “enabler”  (the  one  who  makes   continued  abuse  possible  through  collusion,  or  conspiring  unconsciously)   n Both  parties,  over  time,  develop  a  sense  of  reward  and  satisfaction  from   “being  needed”   n Codependent  persons  develop  emotional  problems  such  as  depression,   anxiety,  relationship  dysfunctions,  and  cycling  between  hyperactivity  and   lethargy   n Codependents  develop  physical  problems  such  as  gastrointestinal   disturbances,  colitis,  ulcers,  migraine  headaches,  rashes  and  skin  problems,   high  blood  pressure,  insomnia,  sleep  disorders   n Codependency  seems  to  be  culturally  driven-­‐acceptable  in  many  cultures     Addressing  Codependency  Issues   n Codependency  is  much  like  an  addiction   n The  first  step  is  to  acknowledge  that  those  in  the  codependent  relationship   have  a  problem   n Several  steps  can  be  taken  to  address  codependency:   n Get  professional  help   n Make  recovery  a  first  priority   n Seek  support  from  others   n Develop  alternative  resources   n Stop  managing  and  controlling  others   n Become  more  self-­‐sufficient     n Books:  Codependent  No  More  –  Author:  Melody  Beattie     n The  Disease  to  Please  –  Author:  Harriet  Braiker     Gender  and  Stress   n Gender  refers  to  the  attributes,  behaviors,  personality  characteristics,  and   expectancies  associated  with  a  person’s  biological  sex  in  a  given  culture   n May  be  based  on  biological  factors  as  well  as  learned  responses   n Represents  the  psychological  process  of  being  male  or  female   n Women  and  men  react  differently  to  stress  due  to  biological  and  culturally   learned  differences.   n Tend  &  Befriend  vs.  Fight  or  Flight   n Societies  promote  or  discourage  various  expressions  of  stress  (crying  or   anger…)  based  on  assumptions  about  gender  (it  is  more  ok  for  women  to  cry   openly).     Female  Gender  Role  and  Stressors   n With  regard  to  females,  there  are  generally  five  categories  of  common   stressors  that  are  specifically  associated  with  this  gender:   – Fear  of  relationships  being  devoid  of  emotional  intimacy   – Concerns  about  being  physically  unattractive   – Fear  of  becoming  victimized   – Apprehension  about  being  involved  in  interpersonal  conflicts  that   require  assertiveness   – Feeling  like  a  failure  in  nurturing  tasks         Male  Gender  Role  and  Stressors   n Most  women  would  not  be  satisfied  with  a  nice  guy  who  is  unemployed  or   unsuccessful,  but  rather  would  want  one  who  is  caring,  sensitive,  kind,   emotionally  expressive,  communicative,  and  successful   n Traditionally,  men  are  thought  to  be  successful  if  they  possess  such  qualities   as  competitive,  aggressive,  domineering,  and  emotionally  restrictive   n A  paradox  exists  for  men:  being  aggressive  at  work,  while  being  caring  and   sensitive  at  home   n Women  are  more  apt  to  seek  therapy  and  talk  about  their  problems  as   opposed  to  men     Gender  Differences  in  Stress-­‐Related  Disorders  and  Coping  Strategies   n Women  suffer  more  from  autoimmune  illnesses,  while  men  are  more  prone   to  develop  cardiac  and  infectious  diseases   n Women  are  more  prone  to  develop  psychiatric  disorders  such  as  anxiety,   depression,  and  panic  disorders,  whereas  men  often  show  antisocial   behavior,  become  substance  abusers,  and  commit  suicide   n Women  report  that  they  experience  more  stress  in  their  lives,  but  because   men  are  supposed  to  suffer  silently,  hold  back  their  tears,  and  never  admit   that  they  have  lost  control,  they  are  more  apt  not  to  report  that  they  are   experiencing  stress     Culture  and  Stress   n A  culture  is  a  group  of  people  with  shared  values,  characteristics,  and   interests.  In  fact,  culture  can  influence  stress  and  coping  in  four  distinct  ways   (Aldwin,  2000):     n A.  The  types  of  stressors  experienced   n B.  The  appraisal  of  these  stressors   n C.  The  choice  of  coping  strategies   n D.  The  institutional  mechanisms  for  coping  with  stress   n Culture  influences  social  role  expectations,  geopolitical  circumstances,  and   wealth  issues.   n Within  a  society,  there  are  subcultures  who  experience  and  respond  to  stress   differently.   n Culture  defines  our  values  and  our  social  expectations.  Stress  happens  with   events  don’t  fit  with  those  culturally  defined  views.     Culture  and  the  Types  of  Stressors  Experienced   n Different  cultures  create  different  sets  of  stressors   n The  culture  of  poverty  creates  a  set  of  stressors  to  which  more  fortunate   people  are  immune   n Even  with  the  reasonably  affluent  there  is  tremendous  pressure  associated   with  achieving  material  possessions  that  signify  success  and  prosperity     Stress  factors  in  less  wealthy  countries   n Greater  exposure  to  crime  and  violence.   n Overcrowding  and  inadequate  housing.   n Unemployment  or  underemployment.   n Increased  chaos  in  daily  life.   n Lack  of  financial  opportunities.   n Feelings  of  oppression  and  lack  of  perceived  choices.     Culture  and  the  Appraisal  of  Stressors   n The  meaning  of  stress  is  different  in  many  cultures   n Differences  exist  even  in  the  perception  of  marathon  running  and  of  obesity     Culture  and  the  Choice  of  Coping  Strategies   n The  choice  of  coping  strategies  is  mediated  by  cultural  values  (e.g.,   comparison  between  Asian  Americans  and  Caucasian  Americans)   n Somatization:  Expressing  experiences  about  stress  is  not  appropriate  in   some  cultures;  instead  reporting  bodily  symptoms  that  would  reflect  stress  is   an  option   Acculturation  Stress   n Refers  to  both  the  cultural  and  psychological  changes  that  result  from   continuous  contact  between  two  or  more  cultural  groups   n A  stressor  could  be  one  culture  trying  to  preserve  their  own  cultural   traditions  versus  adopting  those  of  their  new  culture  (e.g.,  language)   n Another  stressor  could  be  due  to  the  feeling  of  being  marginalized   economically,  socially,  and  politically     Help  Someone  with  Acculturation  Stress   n Monitor  your  biases  and  assumptions  about  this  person  based  on  your  first   impressions  and  past  experiences  with  people  who  appear  similar   n Ask  open-­‐ended  questions  to  elicit  information  and  help  the  person  to  tell  his   or  her  story   n Ask  the  person  to  teach  you  what  you  need  to  know  and  understand   n Make  sure  that  you  listen  sensitively  and  respectively,  taking  the  posture  of  a   curious  investigator    


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