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HESC/ KNES 342 ch 6

by: Theint Myint

HESC/ KNES 342 ch 6 hesc/knes 342

Theint Myint
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

powerpoint notes
Stress Management
Karen Fazio
Class Notes
HESC, KNES, Health Science, Kinesiology, stress, STRESS MANAGEMENT
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Theint Myint on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to hesc/knes 342 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Karen Fazio in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Stress Management in Kinesiology at California State University - Fullerton.

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Date Created: 02/13/16
Chapter  6:     Challenging  Stressful  Thinking     In  this  Chapter:   n Understanding  Self-­‐Inflicted  Stress   n Toxic  Thoughts   n Cognitive  Restructuring  &  Reframing   n Stress-­‐Reducing  Self-­‐Talk     n Thought  Stopping     Challenging  Stressful  Thinking   n Cognitive  restructuring  is  changing  how  you  experience  and  respond  to   stressful  situations  by  changing  how  you  view  them   n Research  shows  that    those  who  recovered  most  quickly  from  heart  attacks   were  those  who  felt  a  sense  of  control  over  their  thoughts  and  moods     Most  Stress  is  Self-­‐Inflicted   n What  may  be  a  stressful  situation  for  one  person  is  a  challenge  for  another   person   n Cognitive  restructuring  and  positive  self-­‐talk  (internal  dialogue)  are  coping   strategies  that  help  people  deal  with  life’s  challenges   n Positive  self-­‐talk  helps  to  minimize  toxic,  negative  thoughts     Creating  Meaning   n A  person’s  experiences  in  life  will  not  have  meaning  unless  that  person   actively  constructs  the  perception  of  the  event   n It  is  important  to  keep  in  mind  that  you  have  the  power  to  make  your  own   choices  about  how  you  wish  to  respond  to  any  adverse  situations   n Frankl  and  other  survivors  of  stressful  situations  prove  that  people  can   choose  their  attitude  and  find  meaning  in  the  most  horrific  experiences.   n The  presence  of  meaning  is  positively  associated  with  life  satisfaction,   happiness,  and  positive  affect  and  negatively  associated  with  depression  and   negative  affect.     Cognitive  Theory   n Ellis  developed  Rational  Emotive  Behavior  Therapy  (REBT)   n Cognitions  lead  to  experiences.   n Changing  cognitions  changes  the  experience  and  reaction.   n The  goal  of  REBT  is  to  teach  people  how  to  identify  what  they  are  doing  to   upset  themselves  and  then  to  change  the  nature  of  their  thinking  in  such  a   way  as  to  produce  a  more  desirable  outcome     n Part  of  REBT  is  the  ABC  theory  of  emotions  (plus  D  and  E):   – A  =  The  Activating  Event   – B  =  Irrational  Belief   – C  =  Emotional  Consequence   – D  =  Disputing  the  Irrational  Beliefs   – E  =  Emotional  Effect   n Ellis  identified  five  irrational  belief  themes:   – Absolute  demands  (“Life  isn’t  fair”)   – Awfulizing  (“It’s  awful”)   – Low  frustration  tolerance  (“I  can’t  stand  it”)   – Musterbation  (“I  must  get  what  I  want”)   – Absolute  judgments  (“I’m  incompetent”)   n Three  major  questions  to  ask  yourself  when  disputing  your  irrational  beliefs   are:   – Where  is  the  evidence  that  what  you  are  experiencing  is  true?   – Who  says  that  things  must  be  the  way  you  think  they  are?   – Does  your  response  seem  logical  and  reasonable,  given  the  situation?     The  Power  of  Language   n Cognitive  restructuring  relies  heavily  on  what  people  say  to  themselves  or  to   others  (internalized  and  externalized  language)   n Change  internal  language  to  reflect  the  idea  that  you  are  in  control  of  your   thinking.   n External=“He  makes  me  angry.”   n Internal=“I  get  angry  when  he…”     Keeping  a  Thought  Journal   n Journals  allow  people  to  monitor  their  stress  they  are  experiencing,  their   irrational  thoughts,  and  associated  feelings   n Allows  you  to  “track”  your  dominant  thinking  patterns     Reframing   n Reframing  means  turning  an  unmanageable  thought  into  one  that  is   manageable.   n Example:   – Reframe:  “I  lost  at  chess.  I’m  no  good  at  games.”   – Into:  “Sometimes  I  lose  and  sometimes  I  win  games.  I  can  learn  to  play   more  skillfully.”  I  have  the  power  to  change  the  situation.     Thought  Stopping   Even  when  you  can’t  implement  the  full  cognitive  restructuring  model,  practice   thought  stopping  to  unhook  from  unhelpful  thought  processes.   1.  Place  a  thick  rubber  band  around  your  wrist.   2.  Wait  for  the  disturbing  or  distracting  thought  or  image  to  come  to  mind.   3.  Reach  over  with  the  other  hand  and  pull  the  rubber  band  to  its  stretched   limit.   4.  Let  the  rubber  band  go.  OUCH!   5.  Notice  that  you  are  no  longer  thinking  about  the  disturbing  image.     When  Challenging  Stressful  Thoughts  Doesn’t  Work   n Stress  and  anxiety  serve  important  functions  (eustress)  to  enhance   performance,  mental  acuity,  and  physical  capabilities  during  emergencies,   competitions,  or  life-­‐threatening  situations   n Worry  and  stress  over  the  future  seem  to  give  you  some  illusion  of  control   n Worrying  about  your  future  seems  to  help  you  to  think  about  problems  and   plan  how  you  might  deal  with  them   n You  enjoy  the  attention  and  sympathy  you  get  from  others.   n You  ward  off  fears  by  believing  that  you  can  somehow  control  the  future  by   thinking  about  it  so  much.   n You  prepare  yourself  for  worst  possible  scenarios  by  thinking  about  them   ahead  of  time.   n Your  way  of  thinking  is  a  habit  –  a  deep  seated  pattern  of  coping     To  Think  or  Not  to  Think   n There  is  a  point  when  cognitive  activity  gets  out  of  control.     n An  alternative  to  thinking  more  is  to  think  less  by  staying  more  in  the  present   moment        


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