HESC/ KNES 342 ch 6
HESC/ KNES 342 ch 6 hesc/knes 342
Cal State Fullerton
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Theint Myint on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to hesc/knes 342 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Karen Fazio in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Stress Management in Kinesiology at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Chapter 6: Challenging Stressful Thinking In this Chapter: n Understanding Self-‐Inflicted Stress n Toxic Thoughts n Cognitive Restructuring & Reframing n Stress-‐Reducing Self-‐Talk n Thought Stopping Challenging Stressful Thinking n Cognitive restructuring is changing how you experience and respond to stressful situations by changing how you view them n Research shows that those who recovered most quickly from heart attacks were those who felt a sense of control over their thoughts and moods Most Stress is Self-‐Inflicted n What may be a stressful situation for one person is a challenge for another person n Cognitive restructuring and positive self-‐talk (internal dialogue) are coping strategies that help people deal with life’s challenges n Positive self-‐talk helps to minimize toxic, negative thoughts Creating Meaning n A person’s experiences in life will not have meaning unless that person actively constructs the perception of the event n It is important to keep in mind that you have the power to make your own choices about how you wish to respond to any adverse situations n Frankl and other survivors of stressful situations prove that people can choose their attitude and find meaning in the most horrific experiences. n The presence of meaning is positively associated with life satisfaction, happiness, and positive affect and negatively associated with depression and negative affect. Cognitive Theory n Ellis developed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) n Cognitions lead to experiences. n Changing cognitions changes the experience and reaction. n The goal of REBT is to teach people how to identify what they are doing to upset themselves and then to change the nature of their thinking in such a way as to produce a more desirable outcome n Part of REBT is the ABC theory of emotions (plus D and E): – A = The Activating Event – B = Irrational Belief – C = Emotional Consequence – D = Disputing the Irrational Beliefs – E = Emotional Effect n Ellis identified five irrational belief themes: – Absolute demands (“Life isn’t fair”) – Awfulizing (“It’s awful”) – Low frustration tolerance (“I can’t stand it”) – Musterbation (“I must get what I want”) – Absolute judgments (“I’m incompetent”) n Three major questions to ask yourself when disputing your irrational beliefs are: – Where is the evidence that what you are experiencing is true? – Who says that things must be the way you think they are? – Does your response seem logical and reasonable, given the situation? The Power of Language n Cognitive restructuring relies heavily on what people say to themselves or to others (internalized and externalized language) n Change internal language to reflect the idea that you are in control of your thinking. n External=“He makes me angry.” n Internal=“I get angry when he…” Keeping a Thought Journal n Journals allow people to monitor their stress they are experiencing, their irrational thoughts, and associated feelings n Allows you to “track” your dominant thinking patterns Reframing n Reframing means turning an unmanageable thought into one that is manageable. n Example: – Reframe: “I lost at chess. I’m no good at games.” – Into: “Sometimes I lose and sometimes I win games. I can learn to play more skillfully.” I have the power to change the situation. Thought Stopping Even when you can’t implement the full cognitive restructuring model, practice thought stopping to unhook from unhelpful thought processes. 1. Place a thick rubber band around your wrist. 2. Wait for the disturbing or distracting thought or image to come to mind. 3. Reach over with the other hand and pull the rubber band to its stretched limit. 4. Let the rubber band go. OUCH! 5. Notice that you are no longer thinking about the disturbing image. When Challenging Stressful Thoughts Doesn’t Work n Stress and anxiety serve important functions (eustress) to enhance performance, mental acuity, and physical capabilities during emergencies, competitions, or life-‐threatening situations n Worry and stress over the future seem to give you some illusion of control n Worrying about your future seems to help you to think about problems and plan how you might deal with them n You enjoy the attention and sympathy you get from others. n You ward off fears by believing that you can somehow control the future by thinking about it so much. n You prepare yourself for worst possible scenarios by thinking about them ahead of time. n Your way of thinking is a habit – a deep seated pattern of coping To Think or Not to Think n There is a point when cognitive activity gets out of control. n An alternative to thinking more is to think less by staying more in the present moment
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