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Ch. 6 Notes: Intro to Primates

by: Demaree Rios

Ch. 6 Notes: Intro to Primates APY 203

Demaree Rios
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These notes cover the first half of chapter 6 from the textbook that define and classify primates as well as notes from this week's lecture in class.
Principles of Physical Anthropology
William Pestle
Class Notes
physical anthropology, Anthropology, evolution, primate
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Demaree Rios on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APY 203 at University of Miami taught by William Pestle in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Principles of Physical Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 02/13/16
CHAPTER 6 NOTES: INTRO TO PRIMATES  CLASSIFICATION  Mammalian order, incredibly varied  Mouse Lemur: smallest primate, full adult weighs in at an oz.  Silverback Gorilla: very large, weighs in @ 500 lbs.   closely related though varied bc diff environments provide diff selective pressures  WHY DO WE CARE?  Bc you are a primate; to understand what made humans what they are need to understand  primates  Anthropologists interested in both anatomy and behavior so to learn evol history is to  look @ behavior of closely related species.  HOW TO DEFINE A PRIMATE  Lack clear specialization, have remained quite generalized (meaning that they’ve retained many ancestral mammalian traits so we have to look at what sets them apart)  Primitive structures differ from other mammals   DEFINING EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS  Primitive; a trait that has been retained for a long time evolutionarily, seen coming from  common ancestor  Plesiomorphy; a primitive trait  Symplesiomorphy; shared primitive trait  Derived; arrived more recently evolutionarily, doesn’t make it “better” than primitive  features  Apomorphy; derived trait  Synapomorphy; shared derived trait  DEFINING A PRIMATE [ancestral characteristic, derived characteristic]  Some shared primitive char  A suite of evol. trends  Only a few true synapomorphies  Tropically distributed (keep in mind, obviously this is not exclusive to the order of  primates)  Fossil record shows primate fossils in areas that are not tropical today but would have been during that time  Arboreally adapted; suited for life in trees, lots of trees in the tropics  Diff navigation than terrestrial life so it would be advantageous to have  prehensile tails  Grasping appendages  Stereoscopic vision, depth perception  Strength  A big enough brain to put it all together!  Endothermal  Generalized limb structure  retained 4 limbs, all the bones of the general mammalian patter  retained large degree of motion in limbs  Omnivorous, wide assortment of food options  Generalized heterodonty  Diff teeth serve diff purposes  Allows for wider range of food, advantageous during harder times/ food scarcities  Premolars and molars with rounded cusps to process variety of food  Hands  Pentadactylous, 5 fingers on hands and feet  Retained generalized primitive arrangement state of the 5 digits  Grasping hands, In tree, grasping branches  Opposable thumb and partially opposable big toe  Quadrupedal  Use all 4 limbs for locomotion  Some employ vertical clinging and leaping  Brachiation, form of locomotion similar to “monkey bars” bc of modification at  shoulder joint, primates that brachiate often usu. longer arms than legs  Knuckle walking  Tendency toward an erect posture  Occasionally bipedal walking  Vision  Color vision (in many)  Binocular vision, forward facing eyes  Stereoscopic vision  Decreased reliance on olfaction  Live I social groups & permanent association among adults  Enhanced sense of touch  Tactile pads rich w. sensory nerves, sensory feedback, greater sense of touch  Increased surface area at the end of digit bones gives better tactile sense  Nails instead of claws  Sits on top of  terminal phalynx  Enhances ability/sense of touch, betters grip sensitivity and precision  Reduced snout size  Trend away from prognathic towards loss of snouts orthognathic (flatter face), better  vision as eyes move closer to front rather than side of face. Reduced reliance on  olfaction  Increased reliance on sense of vision  Depth perception  As go higher in order of primates, increased reliance on sense of sight  Auditory bulla part of petrous portion of temporal   Inner ear of primates enclosed by a piece of bone, this bone is part of temporal bone  of crania  One true synapomoprhy of primates  Decreased litter sizes  K­selection; small number of babies, invest of lot of care to keep alive to pass on  genetic material (diff from R selection, have lots of babies, invest no care, a few  survive)  Anything beyond twins is very unusual  The bigger the animal , more likely K­selection  Prolonged life history  Slowed down developmental clock, babies helpless for a long time  Long gestation period  Long post reproductive lifespan, live for a long time after having babies in  comparison to other organism  More primitive primates have extended life after giving birth, more extended higher  in the order  Trend towards diurnality  Awake during the day, left nocturnal living behind  Increased brain size & complexity  Big brains relative to body size  primates have big brains relative to other mammals  considerable capacity for learning  expansion of neocortex (higher mental functions + integrate sensory info)  Social group living  do not live solitary lives  divisions, hierarchical structures,  Generalization & +flexibility = success  Inventiveness to match environment  Evolve behaviors to help survive  A lot features selected for life in trees still useful for humans today  Manufacturing and use of tools  Exaptation; a feature that was good for one thing becomes useful under another set of  circumstances  PRIMATE ADAPTATIONS  Arboreal adaptive niche, primates have adapted to arboreal living  Dietary shift towards omnivory   May have been stimulated by emergence of flowering plants = new food resources= new  traits arising  GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION & HABITAT  Tropical or subtropical areas  Old World Primates, Southeast Africa, Asia, India, Japan  New World Primates, Mexico, Central Amer. South Amer.  Arboreal so forest or woodland habitats, although some spend much of the day on the  ground


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