Ch. 6 Notes: Intro to Primates
Ch. 6 Notes: Intro to Primates APY 203
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Demaree Rios on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APY 203 at University of Miami taught by William Pestle in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Principles of Physical Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
CHAPTER 6 NOTES: INTRO TO PRIMATES CLASSIFICATION Mammalian order, incredibly varied Mouse Lemur: smallest primate, full adult weighs in at an oz. Silverback Gorilla: very large, weighs in @ 500 lbs. closely related though varied bc diff environments provide diff selective pressures WHY DO WE CARE? Bc you are a primate; to understand what made humans what they are need to understand primates Anthropologists interested in both anatomy and behavior so to learn evol history is to look @ behavior of closely related species. HOW TO DEFINE A PRIMATE Lack clear specialization, have remained quite generalized (meaning that they’ve retained many ancestral mammalian traits so we have to look at what sets them apart) Primitive structures differ from other mammals DEFINING EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS Primitive; a trait that has been retained for a long time evolutionarily, seen coming from common ancestor Plesiomorphy; a primitive trait Symplesiomorphy; shared primitive trait Derived; arrived more recently evolutionarily, doesn’t make it “better” than primitive features Apomorphy; derived trait Synapomorphy; shared derived trait DEFINING A PRIMATE [ancestral characteristic, derived characteristic] Some shared primitive char A suite of evol. trends Only a few true synapomorphies Tropically distributed (keep in mind, obviously this is not exclusive to the order of primates) Fossil record shows primate fossils in areas that are not tropical today but would have been during that time Arboreally adapted; suited for life in trees, lots of trees in the tropics Diff navigation than terrestrial life so it would be advantageous to have prehensile tails Grasping appendages Stereoscopic vision, depth perception Strength A big enough brain to put it all together! Endothermal Generalized limb structure retained 4 limbs, all the bones of the general mammalian patter retained large degree of motion in limbs Omnivorous, wide assortment of food options Generalized heterodonty Diff teeth serve diff purposes Allows for wider range of food, advantageous during harder times/ food scarcities Premolars and molars with rounded cusps to process variety of food Hands Pentadactylous, 5 fingers on hands and feet Retained generalized primitive arrangement state of the 5 digits Grasping hands, In tree, grasping branches Opposable thumb and partially opposable big toe Quadrupedal Use all 4 limbs for locomotion Some employ vertical clinging and leaping Brachiation, form of locomotion similar to “monkey bars” bc of modification at shoulder joint, primates that brachiate often usu. longer arms than legs Knuckle walking Tendency toward an erect posture Occasionally bipedal walking Vision Color vision (in many) Binocular vision, forward facing eyes Stereoscopic vision Decreased reliance on olfaction Live I social groups & permanent association among adults Enhanced sense of touch Tactile pads rich w. sensory nerves, sensory feedback, greater sense of touch Increased surface area at the end of digit bones gives better tactile sense Nails instead of claws Sits on top of terminal phalynx Enhances ability/sense of touch, betters grip sensitivity and precision Reduced snout size Trend away from prognathic towards loss of snouts orthognathic (flatter face), better vision as eyes move closer to front rather than side of face. Reduced reliance on olfaction Increased reliance on sense of vision Depth perception As go higher in order of primates, increased reliance on sense of sight Auditory bulla part of petrous portion of temporal Inner ear of primates enclosed by a piece of bone, this bone is part of temporal bone of crania One true synapomoprhy of primates Decreased litter sizes Kselection; small number of babies, invest of lot of care to keep alive to pass on genetic material (diff from R selection, have lots of babies, invest no care, a few survive) Anything beyond twins is very unusual The bigger the animal , more likely Kselection Prolonged life history Slowed down developmental clock, babies helpless for a long time Long gestation period Long post reproductive lifespan, live for a long time after having babies in comparison to other organism More primitive primates have extended life after giving birth, more extended higher in the order Trend towards diurnality Awake during the day, left nocturnal living behind Increased brain size & complexity Big brains relative to body size primates have big brains relative to other mammals considerable capacity for learning expansion of neocortex (higher mental functions + integrate sensory info) Social group living do not live solitary lives divisions, hierarchical structures, Generalization & +flexibility = success Inventiveness to match environment Evolve behaviors to help survive A lot features selected for life in trees still useful for humans today Manufacturing and use of tools Exaptation; a feature that was good for one thing becomes useful under another set of circumstances PRIMATE ADAPTATIONS Arboreal adaptive niche, primates have adapted to arboreal living Dietary shift towards omnivory May have been stimulated by emergence of flowering plants = new food resources= new traits arising GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION & HABITAT Tropical or subtropical areas Old World Primates, Southeast Africa, Asia, India, Japan New World Primates, Mexico, Central Amer. South Amer. Arboreal so forest or woodland habitats, although some spend much of the day on the ground