Biology Week 1
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alisa A. on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 111 at Adelphi University taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Biological Concepts and Methods in Biology at Adelphi University.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Chapter 22: Principles of Development ● Cloning in mammals wilmut 1997 cloned first sheep, successful nuclear transfer experiment ○ Nucleus from differentiated cell from female, implanted into female egg and produce clone. Third sheep used as surrogate mother.Sheep produce is exact replica of the sheep a the mammarycell donor. “Dolly” produced by asexual reproduction. At 6 years, many disorders seen in older sheep. The mammarycell sheep was 6 as well. Telomeres at end of chromosomes and every time we replicate we loose a bit. “Dolly” produced her own offspring with a normal life span by means of sexual reproduction. ● Transcriptional control, (Transcriptional: going from DNA to RNA) Choosing what DNA gets turned into RNA. 4 step process: ○ Pattern Formation :Spatial organization, where everything is located from head to feet. ○ Morphogenesis: cells are organized into recognizable tissue and organs. (Morph= form, genesis=create/beginning) ○ Determination: cell going down path and can’t change ○ Differentiation: cell function in final state, produce proteins for specific cell, start to function (i.e nerve cell beginning to produce impulses) ● What a cell becomes depends on 4D, where you are in 3 dimension and what time it is. ○ Anterior (toward head), Posterior (toward tail), right & left dependent on organism, Dorsal (toward back), ventral (toward belRelevant to organisms on 4 legs ● Nusslein Volhard & Wieschaus (won noble prize 1995) ○ Fruit Flies exposed to mutagens in order to change DNA, found a number of mutant forms. (Bicoid (coid=tail) was one mutant in which it has two abdominal ends) ■ Genotype → Phenotype ■ Zygotic effect : embryo consists of two mutant genes (homozygous) and will not survive. ■ In study, embryo that was homozygous of mutant was found to be normal. Mated it with a wild type homozygous, found abnormalities and death in offspring. ■ Maternal effect inheritance: mother’s genotype determines offspring's phenotype. Egg cell will give DNA, mRNA, proteins, cytoplasm, and morphogens. Where and when? ■ To find gene we stain protein with an antibody stain, take gene product and put it into mutant and try to “rescue” phenotype. ● Where is gene producing mRNA, expression=transcription. In Situ Hybridization ○ Obtain probe, label probe, add probe to specimen, remove excess robe, observe location of probe. ● What does bicoid do? We know it is inherited and what it expresses. It is telling the cells in the anterior region (looks like posterior due to mutant) that they need to go down the path in becoming anterior. They work in a concentration gradient (high levels on one end and low on other). It is a transcription factor, affecting transcription of a gene in which a lot of it will result in a lot of transcription and vice versa. Bicoid = master regulator in which it gives cell a coordinate in which it is located in embryo ○ Transcription = DNA & RNA , Translation= RNA & PROTEINS. ● Bicoid Master regulator, critical to tell the cell where in the body it is. Function as a morphogen (A signaling molecule, a protein) ● ex of master regulator incluuxinin pants ● Segment small region of the body with distinct structures that will be repeated down the link of the body. (Ex vertebrate) ○ Gap genes (posterior anterior axis) explains where in segments they are ■ A mutant of gap gene will be missing, lack several segments ○ Pair Rule genes expressed in every other segment. ■ A mutant will be missing alternate segments ○ Segment Polarity genes expressed in section of every segment, give every segment and anterior posterior axis (ex tell cell you are in segment 3 but in the anterior part) ■ Mutant will be missing parts of every segment (shorter), impaired anterior posterior polarity ○ Homeotic Mutants Replacement of structures (homeosis) ■ Found in fruit flies as compared to others( mice and humans, and more), it had 180 similar base pairs. (homeobox (hox) DNA binding domain, these genes are code for transcription factors. It shows where the protein will bind to other genes)ll hox genes are homeotic, not all homeotic genes are hox. Found in most organisms. Hox line up in order of chromosome as they line up in the body. ● Regulatory cascade Cell differentiation(bio book) Effector genes cause cell death or proliferation, or e t.
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