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Biology Week 1

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by: Alisa A.

Biology Week 1 Bio 111

Alisa A.
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These notes cover chapter 22, Principles of Development
Biological Concepts and Methods
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alisa A. on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 111 at Adelphi University taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Biological Concepts and Methods in Biology at Adelphi University.


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Date Created: 02/13/16
Chapter 22: Principles of Development    ● Cloning in mammals wilmut 1997 cloned first sheep, successful nuclear transfer  experiment  ○ Nucleus from differentiated cell from female, implanted into female egg and  produce clone. Third sheep used as surrogate mother.Sheep produce is exact  replica of the sheep a the mammary­cell donor. “Dolly” produced by asexual  reproduction. At 6 years, many disorders seen in older sheep. The mammary­cell  sheep was 6 as well. Telomeres at end of chromosomes and every time we  replicate we loose a bit. “Dolly” produced her own offspring with a normal life  span  by means of sexual reproduction.  ● Transcriptional control, (Transcriptional: going from DNA to RNA) Choosing what DNA  gets turned into RNA. 4 step process:  ○ Pattern Formation :Spatial organization, where everything is located from head to  feet.  ○ Morphogenesis: cells are organized into recognizable tissue and organs.  (Morph= form, genesis=create/beginning)  ○ Determination: cell going down path and can’t change  ○ Differentiation: cell function in final state, produce proteins for specific cell, start  to function (i.e nerve cell beginning to produce impulses)  ● What a cell becomes depends on 4­D, where you are in 3 dimension and what time it is.  ○ Anterior (toward head), Posterior (toward tail), right & left dependent on  organism, Dorsal (toward back), ventral (toward belRelevant to organisms on  4 legs  ●  Nusslein­ Volhard & Wieschaus (won noble prize 1995)  ○ Fruit Flies exposed to mutagens in order to change DNA, found a number of  mutant forms. (Bicoid (coid=tail) was one mutant in which it has two abdominal  ends)  ■ Genotype → Phenotype  ■ Zygotic effect : embryo consists of two mutant genes (homozygous) and  will not survive.  ■ In study, embryo that was homozygous of mutant was found to be normal.  Mated it with a wild type homozygous, found abnormalities and death in  offspring.  ■ Maternal ­ effect inheritance: mother’s genotype determines offspring's  phenotype​.   Egg cell will give DNA, mRNA, proteins, cytoplasm, and  morphogens. ​Where and when?   ■ To find gene we stain protein with an antibody stain, take gene product  and put it into mutant and try to “rescue” phenotype.  ● Where is gene producing mRNA, expression=transcription. In Situ Hybridization  ○ Obtain probe, label probe, add probe to specimen, remove excess robe, observe  location of probe.  ● What does bicoid do? We know it is inherited and what it expresses. It is telling the cells  in the anterior region (looks like posterior due to mutant) that they need to go down the  path in becoming anterior. They work in a concentration gradient (high levels on one end  and low on other). It is a transcription factor, affecting transcription of a gene in which a  lot of it will result in a lot of transcription and vice versa. Bicoid = master regulator in  which it gives cell a coordinate in which it is located in embryo  ○ Transcription = DNA & RNA , Translation= RNA & PROTEINS.    ● Bicoid­ Master regulator, critical to tell the cell where in the body it is. Function as a  morphogen (A signaling molecule, a protein)  ● ex of master regulator inclu​uxinin pants  ● Segment­ small region of the body with distinct structures that will be repeated down the  link of the body. (Ex vertebrate)  ○ Gap genes (posterior anterior axis)­ explains where in segments they are  ■ A mutant of gap gene will be missing, lack several segments  ○ Pair Rule genes­ expressed in every other segment.  ■ A mutant will be missing alternate segments  ○ Segment Polarity genes­ expressed in section of every segment, give every  segment and anterior posterior axis (ex tell cell you are in segment 3 but in the  anterior part)  ■ Mutant will be missing parts of every segment (shorter), impaired anterior  posterior polarity  ○ Homeotic Mutants­ Replacement of structures (homeosis)   ■ Found in fruit flies as compared to others( mice and humans, and more),  it had 180 similar base pairs. (homeobox (hox)­ DNA binding domain,  these genes are code for transcription factors. It shows where the protein  will bind to other genes​)ll hox genes are homeotic, not all homeotic  genes are hox. Found in most organisms. Hox line up in order of  chromosome as they line up in the body.  ● Regulatory cascade ­ Cell differentiation(bio book) Effector genes cause cell death or  proliferation, or e t.   


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