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PR Week 4 Notes (ch 7-8)

by: Carolyn Hamaker

PR Week 4 Notes (ch 7-8) STCM 232

Marketplace > Ithaca College > STCM 232 > PR Week 4 Notes ch 7 8
Carolyn Hamaker
GPA 3.9
Public Relations
Arhlene Flowers

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About this Document

Here are the notes for chapters 7 and 8
Public Relations
Arhlene Flowers
Class Notes
public relations, Pr, notes, Chapter
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Carolyn Hamaker on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to STCM 232 at Ithaca College taught by Arhlene Flowers in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views.


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Date Created: 02/13/16
Chapter 7 Going Green Everybody s Doing It Public Opinion is a moving target 0 It s impossible to predict public opinion because of all the different factors that go into forming it Three reasons explain the profound influence of vocal segments of society and public opinion momentum 1 Society is passive 2 Society is segmented 3 Society is divided Public Opinion ls powerful 0 Public opinion plays a role in moving a group of people to action in relation to an issue 0 Many organization do surveys but only survey people who will give them the answers they want to make their side look better Opinion Leaders as catalysts 0 Opinion leaderspower leaders are influentials that drive public opinion and consumer trends 0 People seldom make decisions on their own they are usually influenced by friends parents supervisors physicians public officials celebs media Formal Opinion leaders president Informal opinion leaders influence over peer groups The Flow of opinion models Two step flow theory of communication Public opinion is generally formed around the views of people who have taken the time to sift info evaluate it and form opinion that they express to others Info is disseminated through the media to opinion leaders who then interact with other less informed members of the public Multiple Step flow theory Opinion makers derive large amounts of info from the mass media and other sources and share that info with people gt the Attentive public is interested in the issue but rely on opinion leaders to synthesize and interpret information gt the inattentive public are unaware of or uninterested in the issue and remain outside the opinion formation process N Step Theory states that individuals are seldom influenced by only one opinion leader but actually interact with different opinion leaders Diffusion Theory individuals adopt new ideas or products in five stages 1 Awareness 2 interest 3 trial 4 evaluation 5 adop on Individuals are influenced by media in the first two steps and by friends and family membes in the third and fourth steps Each individual is a decision maker who adopts a new idea or product when they reach the final step The Role of Mass Media 0 PR people can also use mass media to target publics directly and efficiently and rapidly disseminate messages to masses of people 0 PR are first to provide mass media with information Agenda Setting 0 Theory that media tells people what to think about but not how to think about it Framing 0 Theory relating to howjournalists selected certain facts themes treatments and even words to frame or shape a story 0 Pr can frame issues which are then reflected in press coverage and in turn influenced public s opinion about hte crises 0 Two Types of Framing 0 Audience Framing I Depending on beliefs and where someone lived they may react differently to a certain story than another population ex someone in the south may think differently about an article about gun control than someone in a the north 0 Media framing o For PR politicians goal is to encourage voters to change the basis on which they make decisions about voting rather than change their choices about a candidate or issue 0 Positive Framingnegative framing o framing donate and this bunny will live happily ever after 0 framing donate and bunny will die The Role of Conflict 0 Conflict any situation in which 2 or more individuals groups organizations or communities perceive a divergence of interests public opinion reflects different views attitudes and behaviors PR have role of trying to minimize or resolve controversy in conflict situations sometimes PR generate or promote controversy to engender positive or supportive public opinion 0 Mass media can serve to escalate conflict or help them from not becoming escalated 0 PR can serve as an influential social force in ongoing creation of news and news trends oragendas Persuasion in Public Opinion 0 Persuasion is an activity or process in which a communicator attempts to induce a change in the belief attitude or behavior of another person or group of persons through the transmission of a message in a context in which the persuadee has some degree of free choice 0 Much of PR is persuasive communication for organization objectives The use of Persuasion persuasion is used to 1 Change or neutralize hostile opinions 2 crystallize latent opinions and positive attitudes 3 maintain favorable opinions Changing hostile opinions is the hardest Persuasion and Negotiation o Negotiation is teh process by which 2 or more parties attempt to settle disputes reach agreement about courses of action and bargain for individual or collective advantage ADR alternative dispute resolution negotiation is used to avoid lawsuit Some degree of conflict in persuasion and negotiation How parties position themselves before negotiations begin can be crucial to how the give and take unfolds 0 PR can be used as a tool to lead negotiation process People see it as cheaper than lawsuit Factors in Persuasive Communication 1 Audience analysis a demographic psychographic VALS important to understand 2 appeals to self interest a Maslow39s hierarchy of needs should appeal to one of those b needs to help people economic psychological or situational needs 3 audience participation a ex sample distributions have employees discuss how to improve quality control 4 suggestions for actions a Must give clear action to follow Ex Notjust conserve energy but need to tell how to conserve energy 5 source credibility a Expertise sincerity charisma affect credibility b watch out for celebrities because they might get in trouble c Sleeper effect message form low credibility source will actually increase in persuasiveness under right circumstances d discounting cue can cause low credibility like if a politician said it clarity of message a direct simple content and structure of messages channels a Different media has different purposes b Face to face is really good timing and context a Message more persuasive in environmental factors support message or message is received within context of other messages and situations with which the individual is familiar b info on how to conserve energy will be better heard if consumer has just received heating bill c Timing and context play important role in achieving publicity in mass media 10 reinforcement a People ignore or react negatively to messages that conflict with their value of belief systems Limits of Persuasion Effectiveness of persuasive techniques is greatly exaggerated Three limits of persuasion Lack of message penetration a diffusion of messages is not pervasive not everyone watches sme programs and not everyone communicator wants to reach will be in eventual audience b message distortion as pass through media gatekeepers Competing or Conflicting Messages a No message is received in a vacuum Messages are filtered through social structures and belief systems nationality race cultural patterns family and friends dilute persuasive messages Self Selection a People most sought after in an audience are often least likely to be there b loyalists ignore information from other side so they are selective about messages they receive Self Perception a Self perception is channel through which messages are interpreted Different people will perceive the same information differently depending on their dispositions and preexisting opinions Other Party vs Occupation both movements became less popular over time Internet censorship in China Handguns in America Major persuasion conflict 0 make it clear 0 make it easy 0 make it popular Persuading citizens to join US army Demographics for key groups baby boomers generation x millienials Propaganda 0 plain folks o testimonial o bandwagon 0 card stacking 0 transfer 0 glittering generalities Friend39s opinion is most trusted Content and Structure of messages 0 drama and stories surveys and polls stats examples endorsements causes and rationales o emotional appeals Persuasion Don ts 0 don t use false language don t lie about being an expert don t divert attention and attack others don t make unrelated connections don t lie about real purpose don t use emotional appeals that lack support don t oversimplify don t pretend certainty don39t advocate something you don t believe in 00000 00000000 PR can be defined as strategic management of conflict and competition in the best interests of an organization and when possible also the interest of key publics Difference bw competition and Conflict Competition is inevitable and omnipresent It occurs when two or more groups or organizations vie for the same resources Conflict occurs when two groups direct their efforts against each other devising communication and actions that attack Role of PR in managing Conflict 0 PR must perform strategic conflict management 0 stealing thunder when PR can catch conflict in early stages and reduce damage 0 Sometimes PR cannot come up with solutions to appease all publics because of many factors including the continued viability of the organization 0 PR has to make calls and advocate on behalf of their organization It Depends Factors that affect Conflict Management 0 Many factors affect how you react to manage conflict and competition So it depends on tehse factors One pproach to determining how to react in a conflict is the threat appraisal model and contingency theory The Threat Appraisal Model 0 PR finds threat to an organization PR makes an assessment of the demands that threat makes on the organization as well as an assessment of the resources available to address the threat 0 PR must consider knowledge time finances and manage commitment available to combat the threat WHat is best method to assess severity of the danger Will the matter be long or short After assessing threat sometimes PR decides to ignore group to save energy and trouble but letting an issue or group Die on the vine may appear accommodative but is often considered an affront should only be done after ethical deliberation Contingency Theory 0 Two fundamental principles underlie the definition or PR as strategic competition and conflict 0 many factors determine stance or position of an org and when it comes to dealing with conflict and perceived threats 0 PR stance for dealing with a particular audience or public must be dynamic Stance must change as events unfold there is a continuum of stances ranging from pure accommodation to pure advocacy 0 These two principles come up with Continginency theory Contingency factors 0 PR approach is contingent on many factors 0 Expertise and experience of PR professional play role in making strategy 0 organizational level variables 0 values and attitudes of top management have influence on how org responds to conflicts and threats Contingency Continuum 0 Depending on contingency factors there is a range of responses which range from 0 Pure advocacy completely disagree with claims 0 Or Pure accomodation take responsibility and apologize o In between options include litigation PR arguing contending avoid cooperation negotiation compromise p171 chart The Conflict Management Life Cycle 1 Proactive Phase a environmental scanning issues tracking issues management crisis planning 2 Strategic Phase a risk communication conflict positioning crisis management 3 Reactive Phase a crisis communication thigation PR conflict resolution 4 Recovery Phase a Reputation management image restoration Managing the Lifecycle of a Conflict 1 Issues management 2 Strategic Positioning And risk communication 3 Crisis communication a Smoldering Crises Crises that are expected crisis where org was aware of potential business disruption long before the public found out about it Many cases management does nothing so crisis occurs b Coomb explains How various organizations respond to crises i attack accuser ii denial Hi excuse iv jus ca on v ingratiation vi corrective action vii Full Apology 4 Reputation management a Three foundations of reputation i economic performance ii social responsiveness iii ability to deliver valuable outcomes to stakeholders b lmage restoration No matter the strategy it s ultimately up to perceptions of stakeholders and public 5 Start the 4 step cycle over again Other 0 Difference bw Conflict and Competition Planned Parenthood and G Komen foundation Moral conflicts pose special challenges Free silva Suggestions for Communicators What is a crisis Social Media and BP oil spill crisis


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