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LING102 Week 1 Notes (Language, Mind, and Society)

by: Alicia Burtha

LING102 Week 1 Notes (Language, Mind, and Society) LING102

Marketplace > University of Delaware > Language > LING102 > LING102 Week 1 Notes Language Mind and Society
Alicia Burtha
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About this Document

These notes cover Week 1 of course lectures as well as notes on the one assigned reading.
Language, Mind and Society
Vu, Mai Ha
Class Notes
language mind society udel university of delaware ling102 week1 spring semester 2016 springsemester




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Burtha on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING102 at University of Delaware taught by Vu, Mai Ha in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Language, Mind and Society in Language at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 02/13/16
LING102/CGSN16-S Week 1: 2/8, 2/10, 2/12 February 8, 2016 February 10, 2016 In class notes… Foundational Concepts of Linguistics Part 1 Linguistics – scientific study of Language  Determine the properties of language using the scientific method  “Language” (capital L) studies many languages Common misconceptions:  Translation studies  Learning how to speak/read/write other languages  Study of effective communication  Study of using proper words  Etymology Scientific method: 1. Observations 2. Questions 3. Hypothesis 4. Analysis 5. Draw Conclusion 6. Share Results Language – system of communication, constantly evolving, words are born and die all the time, some languages are simpler/more complex than others Language and the individual  Cognitive skill o Requires input within critical window o Develops from infancy o Learned w/o much instruction  Symbolic system o Symbols represent complex ideas Language social aspect  Communicative system o Allows you to represent your ideas to others o Shares abstract concepts Common properties of languages  All have grammar o All rules of the language that determines how sounds should make words and how words should make sentences  Equally systematic Language and linguistics Arbitrariness – a word (its sound) and its meaning are not related Discreteness – messages are built combining smaller, meaningless, units Productivity – infinite number of message, recursive rules in grammar Displacement – talk about things not present Universal grammar – linguistic principles that underline all human languages  Nouns and verbs  Words and functions Chivers (at home) reading due February 12 Linguistics – the study of the rules of language  Rules in language change because language evolves; it is never deliberate Prescriptive rules  Rigid and more strict  There is a right and wrong Linguistic rules  Change over time  Different versions What does Pullum mean when he says “English is the most important language in the world”? It unifies many people. By historical accident it spread around the globe What is the role of Standard English? What does Pullum think? Having one standard type of language means many people can be on the same page from air traffic controllers to business people Have you experienced any distinction between prescriptive and descriptive rules in other languages? February 12, 2016 Prescriptive rules – a set of rules of how one is taught to speak, according to your English teacher, grammar books, purists, and grammar Nazis  Ex. “Don’t speak in infinitive”  Comes from Latin  Help standardize language  Used in professional setting Descriptive rules – an objective description of how we speak of what we accept as grammatical and what we do not in the language. (Linguistics)  Describes type of rules in languages and dialects  Unique to language The Lexicon (type of dictionary) - form of the word - information of the word - meaning of the word Levels of Grammar Phonotactics – what sound combos are allowed  explains accents Phonology – the sounds in the language and how to pronounce them in different environments  rules differ cross-linguistically Morphology – how to combine roots and affixes to form words  order of combinations matter  certain prefixes/suffixes cannot combine with other roots Morpho-phonology – phonological rules depend on the morphological information Syntax  words can only be combined in certain orders  different structures have different meanings  some words need to be preceeded w/ a certain word to make the sentence grammatical Semantics – combination of the meanings of words


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