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by: Mikaela Maldonado

Week4BMSnotes.pdf BMS 260

Mikaela Maldonado
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

All rights go to Kimberly Jeckel and Dr. R..V.Anthony's lectures, all notes are my own
Biomedical Sciences
Dr. Russell Anthony
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikaela Maldonado on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 260 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Russell Anthony in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Biomedical Sciences in Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 02/13/16
Refractory Period  Depolarization is much quicker than repolarization  Action potential moves in one direction but at a site on an axon fiber cannot be restimulated right away Absolute refractory period During depolarization and repolarization another action potential cannot be created o Forces action potential to move in one direction, speed will be the same from one end to the other o After refractory period action potentials can be regenerated Relative Refractory Period nd  Start 2 action potential but the stimulus threshold has to be greater than the first  Towards the end of repolarization or after hyperpolarization  Slow conduction nerve will have a longer refractory period  Cardiac nerves o Long refractory period to allow for relaxation  Skeletal muscle nerves o Short refractory period allows to be held Conduction Velocities  Constant for a give nerve fiber  Types (myelination/not) of fiber  Diameter – impacted by myelination Salutatory Conduction  Action potentials jump from one node to the next as they propagate along a myelinated axon  Nodes of Ranvier o Gap in myelin o Each of these are essentially cells with cell membrane that cover the “wires” (axon) in the nervous system o Action potentials jump from one node to the next  Ex: Somatic nerve o Myelinated and spinal o Diameter 20 micrometers o 130 m/s or 250 mph o alpha fiber  postganglionic fiber o parasympathetic o not myelinated o 0.5 microns in diameter o 0.5 m/s ~ 20 inches per second Synapses  axons have a synaptic knob  between 2 nerve cells, nerve/gland, nerve/tissue  electrical energy transformed into chemical energy  can be like telephone poles and attach to any pars of another nerve cell  dendodendrites (named for what attaches where) are super rare and typically occur in the cerebellum  Type I o Excitatory post synaptic potential (EPSP) o Acetyl choline, epinephrine, norepinephrine o Depolarize membrane o Increase Na influx  Type II o Inhibitory post synaptic potential (IPSP) o Glycine, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) o Hyperpolarize the membrane o Increase K influx and Cl influx  Synaptic integration o You will have both Type I and II o Skeletal and somatic cells are the only ones with 1:1 action potentials Conduction  neurotransmitter molecules are synthesized and packaged in vesicles  an action potential arrives at the pre synaptic terminal  voltage gated Ca channels open and Ca ions enter o smooth ER stores Ca o the influx of Na switches to Ca at the synaptic knob o increase in Ca concentration, increases migration in exocytosis or secretion of neurotransmitter vesicles  rise in Ca triggers fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic membrane  transmitter molecules diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind to specific receptors on the post synaptic cell  bound receptors activate post synaptic cell  neurotransmitter breaks down is take up by presynaptic terminal or other cells or diffuses away from the synapse Transmission  one direction  synapse provides for modification of transmission speed  not at 1:1 ration between pre and post synaptic action potentials  neurotransmitters o excite or inhibit action of the postsynaptic cell Peripheral nervous System Synapses  acetylcholine o abundant o nicotinic receptors – Ionotropic o muscarinic receptors – metabotropic  norepinephrine and epinephrine o action through adrenergic receptor o metabotropic in nature Ionotropic Receptor  acetylcholine is released into the synapse  Na+ and acetylcholine driven co transport through ion channels into both the pre and post synaptic knobs  Nicotinic Ach receptor channel is activated  Membrane is depolarized  Action potential is excited  Muscle contraction results  Results in a fast, rapid response  Pores allow the ion through Metabotropic Receptor nd  2 messenger system is what opens the ion channel  acetylcholine is released into the synapse  Na+ and acetylcholine driven co transport through ion channels into the pre synaptic knob  Acetylcholine binds to G protein couple receptor o Beta and gamma subunits release to activate the movement of K+ back outside of the cell  Alpha subunit releases and activates muscarinic Ach receptor  Membrane is hyperpolarized through release of K+ ions out of the cell that causes a decrease in heart rate  Slow and sustained response Voluntary control  CNS -> nicotinic receptor that responds to acetyl choline -> skeletal muscle activation  Involves one neuron Involuntary Control  Involves 2 neurons  Rest and Digest o Parasympathetic o Long preganglionic neuron o Acetyl choline and muscarinic receptor  Fight or Flight o Sympathetic o Short preganglionic neuron o Adrenergic receptors Endocrine System  Hormone o Excite or inhibit something o Travels in blood o Chemical compounds o Adapt responses from neurons o Neurohormones  Regulatory  Secreted by neuroendocrine transducers  Electrical energy  Hormonal response conversion  Ex: Pituitary  Posterior – nervous tissue  Anterior – secretes hormones  Endocrine o Regulate rather than initiate o Stores hormones o Not the same rate of secretion o Secretion into the blood is ductless o Hormones secreted into the blood do 4 things  Excretion in urine or feces  Inactivated through metabolism  Activated through metabolism  Bind to a receptor on target cells and produce a cellular response o Signaling  Endocrine – through the blood over large distances  Paracrine – neighboring cells  Autocrine – cells that activate themselves  Exocrine o Secretion onto a surface from the blood o Involves ducts o Outward bound  4 Types of Endocrine Hormones o steroids  derived from cholesterol  intracellular receptors  complex acts as transcription factor and increase mRNA expression and transcription  testosterone, cortisol o biogenic amines – more soluble when it is not nonpolar  uses surface receptors  thyroid hormone, catecholamines o prostenoids – fatty acid derivatives  pathway for creation through CDX1 and 2 and fatty acids o protein hormones  peptide (oxytocin, ADH) <polypeptide (relaxin, insulin) <protein (prolactin, GH)<glycoprotein (LH and FSH) Membrane-Bound Receptors o Ion channels, G protein couple receptors, kinase pathway receptors, 7 pass alpha helix structure, intrinsic enzymatic activity, enzyme associated receptor o Activate intracellular signaling cascades that affect cell function o Activate downstream mediators that activate DNA transcription and also effect other parts in the cell o Faster than a lipid, steroid receptor, but is less sustained nd o Polar, hydrophilic, rapid, 2 messengers, temporary o NE, E, Oxytocin, ADH Lipid Soluble Messengers o Diffuse through the plasma membrane o Intracellular receptors o Bind directly to recognized sequences in DNA and alter transcription o Slow but sustained o Non polar, intracellular, hydrophobic, slower, more permanent o Steroids and thyroid hormone Water Soluble Messengers nd o Kinase, receptor tyrosine, cascades, G proteins, 2 messenger ion channels, amplification Pituitary Posterior o Hormones  Oxytocin -> uterine muscles, mammary glands  Contraction of myoepithelial cells in mammary  ADH -> kidney tubules  Vasopressin  Increase blood pressure  Stimulate glycogenosis  Reabsorption of water o Neurohypophysis  Neural tissue o Hypothalamus  Generates hormones  Travel through nerve cells (axoplasmic transport) directly to posterior  Stored until released to the blood Anterior o Gland tissue o Hypothalamus  Releasing hormones  Travel to anterior pituitary through portal vessels  Stimulate release/inhibition of endocrine hormones o Hormones  FSH -> testes or ovaries  LH -> testes or ovaries  TSH -> thyroid  ACTH -> Adrenal cortex, secretes cortisol  Prolactin -> mammary glands  GH -> entire body  Stimulates protein synthesis  Anti insulin effects  Increase fat and CHO metabolism and mobilization  Mediated by IGFs in the liver  Problems o Gigantism – too much GH prior to epiphyseal plate closure o Acromegaly – excess GH after epiphyseal plates close o Dwarfism – insensitivity to or a mutant GH receptor Hypothalamus o Hormones for regulation  GnRH +FSH and LH  GHRH + GH  SS – GH  TRH +TSH  Dopamine – prolactin  CRH + ACTH Thyroid o T4 and T3 follicular cells  Increase O2 consumption and metabolism  Normal growth and tissue differentiation  Increase protein synthesis  Increase glucose absorption  Increase CHO absorption (intestine)  Regulate lipid metabolism o Calcitonin – parafollicular cells (C cells) o Hypothyroidism  Lack of T3/T4 production  Sluggish, obese, hypertrophy, goiter, lack of iodine


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