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Chem 101, Chp 2 notes

by: Alyssa Kelly

Chem 101, Chp 2 notes CHEM 101

Alyssa Kelly
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These notes are taken from the lecture. Any sections that are not in the notes will not be on the test.
Structural Chemistry, with Application to Chemistry of the Elements
Dr. Shahla Yekta
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Kelly on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 101 at University of Rhode Island taught by Dr. Shahla Yekta in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Structural Chemistry, with Application to Chemistry of the Elements in Science at University of Rhode Island.


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Date Created: 02/13/16
CHM 101 – CHAPTER 2 NOTES Section 2.1 – The Atomic Theory Dalton’s Atomic Theory: 1. Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms. 2. All atoms of a given element are identical, having the same size, mass, and chemical properties. The atoms of one element are different from the atom of all other elements. 3. Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element. In any compound, the ratio of the numbers of atoms of any two of the elements present is either an integer or a simple fraction. 4. A chemical reaction involves only the separation, combination, or rearrangement of atoms; it does not results in their creation of destruction. Law of Definite Proportions: different samples of the same compound always contain its constituent elements in the same proportion by mass Law of Conservation of Mass: no matter can be created or destroyed Law of Multiple Proportions: if two elements can combine to form more than one compound, the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other element are in ratios of small whole numbers Section 2.2 – The Structure of the Atom Electrons: negatively (-) charged particles that exists in a large “cloud” around the nucleus Nucleus: sense central core Protons: positively (+) charged particles located in the nucleus Neutrons: neutral particles located in the nucleus Section 2.3 – Atomic Number, Mass Number, and Isotopes Atomic Number: number of protons in the nucleus; determines the element identity; the number of protons and electrons are the same Mass Number: sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus; determines the isotope identity Isotopes: differ in the number of neutrons, but the same number of protons and electrons; similar reactivity and bonding Ions: groups of atoms with a positive or negative charge Cation: positive charge caused by the loss of an electron Anion: negative charge caused by the gain of an electron Section 2.4 – 2.5 – The Periodic Table Created by Mendeleev (1869) Arranged in increasing atomic mass from left to right and top to bottom Elements with similar properties are grouped together Rows: periods Columns: groups or families Metals: ductile, malleable, conductive, positive ionic charge Nonmetals: brittle solids, often gases or liquids, negative charge Metalloids: properties of both metals and nonmetals Transition metals: become positively charged; value of charge is unpredictable; charges designated with roman numerals Alkali metals: group 1A; +1 charge; highly reactive Alkaline earth metals: group 2A; +2 charge; reactive Halogens: group 7A; -1 charge; highly reactive; diatomic molecules Noble gases: group 8A; non-reactive Lanthanides and Actinides: bottom of table; very reactive; + charge; often radioactive Section 2.6 – 2.7 – Chemical Formulas and Naming Chemical formula: symbolic representation of molecular composition Empirical: simplest whole number ratio of atoms Molecular: exact types and number of atoms Structural: shows relationship between atoms Molecule: two atoms in a definite arrangement Diatomic molecules: H, O, F, Br, I, N, Cl Ionic compound: a neutral compound containing cations and anions Naming Ions and Ionic Compounds:  For cations: add the word ION after the element name  For anions: change the element name ending to –ide Polyatomic Ions: lose or gain electrons as a group; charge is spread over 2 or more atoms To name a molecular compound: compound must only consist of nonmetallic elements; use prefixes below Prefixes to know:  1 = mono  2 = di  3 = tri  4 = tetra  5 = penta  6 = hexa  7 = hepta  8 = octa  9 = nona  10 = deca Acid: yields hydrogen ions (H+) and anions when dissolved in water Base: yields hydroxide ions (-OH) and cations when dissolved in water Memorize these common acids and bases:  Hydrochloric Acid (aq): HCl  Hydrobromic Acid (aq): HBr  Sulfuric Acid: 2 SO4  Carbonic Acid: H 2O 3  Nitric Acid: HNO 3  Phosphoric Acid: H 3O 4  Acetic Acid: CH3COOH  Sodium hydroxide (base): NaOH  Ammonium hydroxide (base): NH OH 4  Lithium hydroxide (base): LiOH  Potassium hydroxide (base): KOH Hydrates: compound associated with a fixed number of water molecules To name hydrates:  Use numerical prefixes for number of water molecules  Add the word “hydrate”  Dot shows H O2association


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