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SPMT 320 Motivation and Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

by: Isabelle Anonas

SPMT 320 Motivation and Self-Fulfilling Prophecy SPMT 320 002

Marketplace > George Mason University > Psychlogy > SPMT 320 002 > SPMT 320 Motivation and Self Fulfilling Prophecy
Isabelle Anonas
GPA 3.006

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About this Document

This is all that was covered in class on February 9th and 11th.
Psychology of Sport
Jordan Goffena
Class Notes
motivation, self, Fulfilling, prophecy, Sport, Psychology, February
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabelle Anonas on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPMT 320 002 at George Mason University taught by Jordan Goffena in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Sport in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 02/13/16
SPMT 320 February 9-11 Motivation  Leadership cannot really be researched because it’s social; many theories  Coaching for the Inner Edge is a good book for learning about coaching o Focuses on transformational leadership  Develop two practices that do the same exact thing and allow athlete to choose; democratic coach o Explain why the practice is important o Provide rationale  Having fun is very important for athlete o Parenting is very similar to coaching What motivates exercise participants? Joining: health factors, weight loss, fitness, self-challenge, feeling better Continuing: Enjoyment, liking instructor, liking type of activity, social factors Motivational Climate- transitions from social psychology to sport psychology  Coach should help guide in right direction or back into right direction  Coaches can set the motivational climate for a team - practice /game situation.  Athletes perceive what the climate is.  Climate is multi- dimensional with different structures. What matters in a coach created climate? • Athlete’s perception of coaches behavior and structures of team. • Athlete’s own achievement goals. • Interaction of both. • Coaches’ achievement goals. Two Major Views: 1. Self-Determination Theory - motivational theory of human learning that outlines the degree to which optimal engagement, growth, and development are necessary for persistent participation in an activity. • (SDT micro-theory Basic Psychological Needs Theory There are 3 universal psychological needs: Competence, Autonomy, and Relatedness • Cognitive Evaluation Theory Utilizes social environment to enhance positive motivational orientations to increase intrinsic motivation) 2. Achievement Motivation- a person’s orientation to strive for task success, persist in the face of failure, and experience pride in accomplishments • Key aspects from both perspectives: Achievement motivation: Self-comparison of achievement. Competitiveness: Social evaluation or comparison. Influences • Choice of activities • Effort to pursue goals • Intensity of effort • Persistence in the face of failure • Need Achievement Theory - an interactional view that considers both personal and situational factors as important predictors of behavior. 5 components: Personality factors, situational factors, resultant tendency, emotional reactions, achievement behavior. Implication for Professional Practice 1. Recognize the interaction of personal and situational factors influencing motivation. Stage of self-determined behavior E.g., extrinsically vs. intrinsically motivated Situations approached or avoided 2. Determine when competitive goals are appropriate. 3. Utilize an autonomy-supportive leadership style. 4. Enhance feelings of competence and control. Self-fulfilling Cycle and Implicit Theories Self-fulfilling prophecy- a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive (or negative) feedback between belief and behavior. • “Pygmalion in the Classroom” • Told teachers they were teaching “late bloomers” who were expected to show major academic improvements in the near future. • Teachers then held students to higher standards, and said expectancies enhanced the performance of the students over the course of a school year. • “Pygmalion Effect” • Interactions within this cycle can be positive or negative in nature and also perceived to be positive or negative in nature, but ultimately the aim is to think positively to enhance resilience. Negative Self-fulfilling Prophecies • The fear of success is a phenomenon that characterizes athletes’ as intimidated and ill-prepared to handle responsibilities and pressures that come with new levels of success. • Fear of failure can lead to avoiding events and contests all together to an increased level of anxiety and doubt hampering performance. Entity Theory/Perspective • Individuals who believe that people’s traits and abilities are fixed. • Abilities do not change over time regardless the amount of effort. • Quicker to judge abilities, have difficulties adjusting judgments tend to follow stereotypes. • Controlling leadership style Incremental Theory/Perspective • Individuals who believe that traits and abilities are malleable. • Abilities can be improved over time with sufficient effort. • More accepting of the process of learning, allow athletes to grow, refute stereotypes. • Autonomy-supportive leadership style Achievement Goal Theory • Outcome (performance) goal orientation: Comparing performance with and defeating others. • Task (mastery) goal orientation: Improving relative to one’s own past performances. Keys of Achievement Goal Theory • Focus extra attention on task-oriented goals. • Foster mastery or task motivational climates. • Mindset Growth (incremental) “Learned Optimism” Fixed (entity) “Learned Helplessness” High Achievers • High motivational orientation to achieve success • Low motivation orientation to avoid failure • Focus on the pride of success • Ascribe success to stable and internal factors within their control • Ascribe failure to unstable and external factors outside their control • Usually adopt task goals • Perceived competence and control: Have high perceived competence and feel that achievement is within their control • Task choice: Seek out challenges, able competitors, and demanding tasks • Performance: Perform well in evaluative conditions Low Achievers • Low motivational orientation to achieve success • High motivational orientation to avoid failure • Focus on shame and worry that may result from failure • Ascribe success to unstable and external factors outside their control • Ascribe failure to stable and internal factors within their control • Usually adopt outcome goals • Perceived competence and control: Have low perceived competence and feel that achievement is outside their control • Task choice: Avoid challenges, seek out very difficult or very easy tasks or competitors • Performance: Perform poorly in evaluative conditions


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