Psychology Week 5 Notes
Psychology Week 5 Notes Psych 2010
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Aimee A Callender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Chapter 5 Sensation and Perception Why study it? o How we study color o Often what we see is different from what’s there o Different people interpret things differently Sensation o Respond to physical stimuli o Encoded as neural signal Perception o Interpretation of sensation o Our actual experiences Bottom-Up processing o Sensory analysis Wavelength, shape, and location Top-Down processing o Experiences and expectations Relative size, distance, memories/experiences Process of Sensation and Perception o Receptors Respond to stimulus, produce electrical changes and neural impulses Transduction – process of producing electrical response to physical stimulus o Sensory Neurons Carry impulses from receptors to CNS Vision Electromagnetic Energy (light waves) o Small portion of spectrum Short wavelength = high frequency o Bluish colors, high-pitched sounds Long wavelength = low frequency o Reddish colors, low-pitched sounds Great amplitude o Bright colors, loud sounds Small amplitude o Dull colors, soft sounds Accommodation o Lenses changes shape to focus on things near and far The Retina and Receptor Cells o Cones Respond to colors in bright light Most in fovea (~6 million) Acuity Blue (short), Green (medium), Red (long) o Rods Allow vision in dim light ~120 million Lacks acuity Perception: Overview Color Perception o Trichromatic Theory Young and Helmholtz Eye has 3 color receptors, one for each primary color of light Red + Green = Yellow o Color-Opponent Theory o Opponent Process Theory of Color Vision Receptors (in visual cortex) that respond to the three pairs of colors: Red-green Blue-yellow Black-white Object Perception (shape, size, and location) o Feature Detectors o Dorsal stream and ventral stream o Dorsal (where) o Ventral (what) pathway Face Detectors Agnosia (Inability to recognize objects) Prosopagnosia (inability to recognize faces) Apperceptive Agnosia Inability to integrate features of an object into an overall pattern Perceptual failure Damage to right hemisphere Associative Agnosia Person can draw objects and distinguish shapes, but cannot recognize what object’s purpose is “what” pathway is disrupted Perceiving Forms and Objects Bottom-Up and Top down processing Perceptual Set o A readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way Perceptual Organization Gestalt Psychologists Laws o Similarity Group items together that are similar o Simplicity Try to find the simplest interpretation of all o Proximity Closer things are to each other, view as a group Figure vs. Ground o Distinct object is figure o Size, movement, edges Law of Closure o Close the figures even if no lines are there Depth Perception o Depth Cues Binocular (require both eyes) Convergence o Look at object close to us, our eyes move in Retinal Disparity o 2 eyes in 2 different places in head o Give 2 slightly different images in the retina and then combine them o Examples: Viewmaster and stereoscope Monocular (require one eye) Linear Perspective o As things get farther away lines converge in distance o Show things getting smaller o Interposition Things closer to you overlap the objects that are farther away o Relative Size The closer up object is the bigger it appears o Color Constancy Checker board squares demonstration where they look like different gray colors but they are the same
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