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Chemistry II Week 3 Notes

by: Annika Coley

Chemistry II Week 3 Notes CHEM 1120

Marketplace > University of Memphis > Chemistry > CHEM 1120 > Chemistry II Week 3 Notes
Annika Coley
University of Memphis
GPA 3.99

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chapter 14 and 15 notes
Dr. Brewster
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annika Coley on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1120 at University of Memphis taught by Dr. Brewster in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see GENERAL CHEMISTRY II in Chemistry at University of Memphis.

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Date Created: 02/13/16
Chemistry II Notes – Week 3 Ch 14  Raoult’s Law o Two liquids mixed will both affect the vapor pressure  Add together both liquid’s individual vapor pressure o If the two liquids have strong attractions to each other the vapor pressure will be smaller than expected  Boiling point elevation o Directly proportional to the molal concentration of solute particles o BP solutionsolute =b·k b  Where k bs a constant o Boiling point of a solution is higher than the boiling point of the pure solvent  Freezing Point Depression o The freezing point for a solution is lower than it is pure solvent o Like boiling point elevation, it is directly proportional to the molal concentration of solute particles o Same equation except with k cofstant  Osmosis o Flow of water from low concentration to high concentration of solution o Separated by semipermeable membrane and only the solvent moves o Often thought of as the flow of water against gravity  Osmotic pressure o Amount of pressure needed to keep osmotic flow from taking place o Proportional to molarity of solute particles  Meaning if there are moles of solute form the water to flow towards then the osmotic pressure will be higher o Also based off of Van’t Hoff factors  Larger Van’t Hoff factors equal larger osmotic pressure o П=MRT  Van’t Hoff Factor o Ratio of moles of solute particles to moles of formula units dissolved o Always less than theoretical values because the ions may dissociate but they may be still be close enough to each other to not be considered fully dissociated Ch 15: Chemical Kinetics  Reaction rate o Speed of a chemical reaction o Important to be able to control the speed of a chemical reaction o 3 things that effect reaction rate  Concentration of reactants  Greater reaction rate with greater concentration  Reaction happens when particles collide productively  Increased temperature  The particles move faster at a higher temperature so they are more likely to collide  If they are moving faster they are also more likely to have high enough activation energy to cause a reaction if they do collide  Gases are the exception – they are less likely to react if they are at a higher temperature  Reactant orientation  Can cause a change in what is produced when they collide  B + A-A = B-A-A  B + A-X = B-A-X or B-X-A  Rate o How much a quantity changes during a period of time o Rate=–Δ[H ]2Δt (where the reactant is Hydrogen) o You can graph the rate of the reaction on a graph as a curve  Average rate o Change in measured concentrations in any particular time period o As the reaction continues, the concentration of reactant decreases causing the reaction to slow down  Instantaneous Rate o Change in concentration at any one particular time  Slope at one point on the cure – tangent line  Reaction Rate and Stoichiometry o The coefficients of the elements in the reaction’s equation help indicate the rate of change for each element o The change in concentration of each substance is multiplied by 1/coefficient  Monitoring a reaction continuously o Need to know  Total pressure  Polarimetry  Spectrophotometry  Rate law o The rate of a reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of each reactant raised to a power o For the reaction aA + bB = products  n and m are order for each reactant  k is the rate constant  rate = k [A] [B]m  Reaction order o Coefficient in front of the element o Sum of the exponents on the reactants  Overall order of the reaction  Zero order o One reactant decomposing o Rate of reaction will not change with concentration change  First order o Directly proportional to concentration  Second order o K[A]2 o Quadruples the rate of the reaction o Concentration changed by a factor of 2 and the rate changes by a factor of 4  Determining rate law o Change concentration and measure rate o Change only one reactant’s concentration 


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