Organismal Biology Week 3 Notes
Organismal Biology Week 3 Notes Bio 1306
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GEOL 1313 - 002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Rodriguez on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1306 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Science at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Organismal Biology Dr. Carl S. Lieb Weekly Notes 3 2/8/2016-2/10/2016 Chapter 17: Speciation Before mating; courtship displays or chemosensory signaling Pre-mating Isolating Mechanism Post-mating Isolating After mating; hybrid sterility Mechanism Biological Species Uses a standard of reproductive isolation (Ex: sympatric) Concept Lineage Species Concept Subjective. Asks: are the two populations on separate evolutionary causes that they can be said to be from separate lineages? (Ex: allopatric, parapatric) Sympatric Species Occur in the same area and don’t mate (isolating mechanisms). If they mate, the hybrids have reduced fitness. Ex: Great Plains and Texas Rat Snake Allopatric Species Separated by a geographic space. Ex: Texas banded gecko, Western banded gecko Parapatric Species Species don’t overlap but are adjacent to each other, hybridization areas may form Binomial system of nomenclature for species Naming system invented by Carl Linnaeus (1700’s). Uses two Latin words for species. First word: genus Second word: specific epithet Ex: Canis latrans Allopatric Speciation Gradualistic; occurs by a physical barrier. When the barrier is removed, the descendants contact and speciation occurs. Produces allopatric lineages but can become sympatric. Parapatric Speciation Produces parapatric lineages; hybridization zones may form Sympatric Speciation 1) By polyploidization: the duplication of chromosomes within individuals. Tendency in plant population for complete nondisjunction of chromosomes. Organismal Biology Dr. Carl S. Lieb Weekly Notes 3 2/8/2016-2/10/2016 2 ways: Autopolyploidy: chromosome duplication in a single species Allopolyploidy: combining of the chromosomes of two different species 2) Host-plant(parasite) Specificity Divergence: results in a second species. Ex: fruit flies on hawthorn fruits vs. apple fruits Chapter 19: Prokaryotes Prokaryotes Bacteria/ Archaea Metabolic Types Anaerobes Don’t use oxygen as an electron acceptor for oxidative metabolism Obligate Anaerobes Oxygen will kill them Facultative anaerobes Can shift between aerobic and anaerobic; may use fermentation for ATP production Aerotolerant anaerobes Don’t use oxidative metabolism but oxygen won’t kill them Aerobes Use oxygen for metabolism Obligate aerobes NEED oxygen for survival Nutrition Types Photoautotrophs Perform photosynthesis. Ex: Cyanobacteria uses chlorophyll a & releases O 2 Bacteriachlorophyll release sulfur. Phtoheterotrophs Use light energy as a source but obtain carbon form other organisms. Ex: purple nonsulfur bacteria use phosphorylation for ATP production. Organismal Biology Dr. Carl S. Lieb Weekly Notes 3 2/8/2016-2/10/2016 Chemoautotrophs Get energy by oxidizing inorganic compounds. They oxidize ammonia and nitrate ions to form nitrate, hydrogen, sulfate, sulfur (ex: Archaea) Chemoheterotrophs Obtain energy & carbon from organic compounds Bacteria important to Nitrogen Cycle Dentrifiers Process nitrate under anaerobic conditions to release nitrogen Nitrogen fixers Convert nitrogen into ammonia Nitrifiers Oxidize ammonia into nitrate Multicellularity Biofilms Communities of different prokaryote species that stick to a surface and collect more species. Ex: Stromatolites- cyanobacteria biofilms Quorum Sensing Interaction between individuals in a biofilm that promotes growth, sustainability, & antibiotic resistance Bacterial Lineages Known Low GC Gram Positives Low guanine/cytosine(GC) to adenine/thymine(AT) ratio in DNA. May be gram negative without a cell wall Endospores: heat/desiccation resistant structures w/spore coat which survive because they’re dormant. Ex: bacillus anthacis High GC Gram Positives High guanine/cytosine ratio. Constitutes most antibiotics & (Actinobacteria) pathogens (Ex: mycobacterium tuberculosis) Hyperthermophilic Heat loving bacteria and archaea that occur near volcanic vents, and all hot environments Bacteria Hadobacteria Live in very cold/hot habitats. Ex: Thermus aquaticus Discovered in 1960’s in Yellowstone. Organismal Biology Dr. Carl S. Lieb Weekly Notes 3 2/8/2016-2/10/2016 Cyanobacteria Bacteria responsible for the oxygen revolution. Photoautotrophs that use chlorophyll a. Types: 1. Vegetative: grow by binary fission 2. Spores: used for colonation growth 3. Heterocysts: used for nitrogen fixation which led to oxygen revolution 3 billion years ago Spirochetes Gram negative, motile. Chemoheterotrophic, have axial filament and rotate. Includes pathogens, parasites, and some free living Chalmydias Gram negative cocci that only live as parasites. Some are pathogens Proteobacteria (purple Their common ancestor was photoautotrophic. Includes bacteria) nitrogen fixing, pathogens, non-pathogenic and free living. Live in extreme environments Archaea 1. Nanoarcheota 2. Euryarcheota- acidophilic/thermophilic. Some are methanogens. 3. Crenarcheota 4. Korarcheota 5. Thaumarcheota Contain pink pigments and are found in salty environments. Extreme halophiles
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