Week #6 Notes for Social Psychology
Week #6 Notes for Social Psychology Psyc 3221
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Warren on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3221 at East Carolina University taught by Kendell Thornton in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Social Psychology2/15/16 Video Watched: On YOUTUBE: TEDxCanberra-As Donaldson-Cognitive dissonance Ash Donaldson was a commercial piolet in the 80s NOTES ON VIDEO: Cognitive Dissonance: had a belief of being a good pilot but couldn’t do just instrument reading only 2 ways of flying: o Visual-where you can see everything below you for rookies o Instrument flying- for the professionals. Only looking at dials and instruments. Ash went up for a flying lesson when flying he was ordered to do a standard turn and then the artificial horizon was a little off and Ash didn’t believe that he was not straight and went into the graveyard spiral. His senses failed him. So he was taught to trust the instruments. He tried time and time again and failed. He had learned that he should trust the instruments even though he kept thinking they were failing time after time. How we think our minds work: like a new fancy computer with HD recording. But we only take in snit-bits of info and our mind fills in the rest for us! As piolets, like Ash was, they have to break the sky up into quadrants to see other aircrafts. All our senses work like sight so our mind fills in a lot of gaps for us. Our minds can fool us and we don’t take in and store everything. Only little bits of emotions, thoughts, feelings and then when we recall it our mind pieces the memory together. The second time we experience those feelings and emotions through a memory it is like a screen play and each time you remember something our mind takes it out of reality so each time we recall the memory it is further from the truth. We are good at social relationships but not good at logic. Cognitive dissonance: mind tries to hold two different ideas at the same moment. This is why we can’t understand conflicting understandings. We try to rationalize our behaviors and this is when we go wrong and don’t try to reason with ourselves, but instead make excuses and think they are good for them. We try to rationalize things. We try to protect our self-concept. Bush thinks he is NOT wrong about evading Iraq and will never think he is wrong. Fired people who didn’t agree with him. He thinks of himself very highly. He protected himself from others disagreement. Confirmation bias: seeing confirming disbeliefs of our imagination and stringing them together to confirm what we are thinking. Bias blind spot: the tendency to see oneself as less biased than others Many billion dollar industry’s is messing with our thoughts all the time. Supplements, anti-aging cream, mind and body balance and many others are examples of this. o EX: Power balance bracelet: Promoting balance so the industry gives free products to athletes and then the person who wants to wear it does research and then this makes people think in the way of confirmation bias. The buyer would only remember the good performance and how he performed and this just kept confirming his bias. Cognitive dissonance can cause rage because the person’s point is not right, or disbelief. Science is a process designed to overcome our biases and this comes down to the scientific method. o Scientific method: Identify problem Formulate hypothesis Test hypothesis Collect and study the information Make a conclusion Share test and other results It is powerful to know how to really overcome cognitive biases and internal battles so we need to work on this in the school system. We need to use our brains more effectively, learn to use them better than we do now in our schools. There are many health advances that have happened in recent years, we now understand more about the mind and decisions. It is hard for us as humans to get over our biases and other tricks our minds try to play. We can all learn to use our minds more effectively. NOTES OF Class Discussion: In North Carolina o Minorities can’t vote, can’t get off work to vote, and can’t vote without the special ID. o Since the last voting time 80 voting stations were taken out of NC and this makes it harder for the minorities to vote. o Woman said Obama didn’t do anything without the constitution but in North Carolina there are many things happening that are unconstitutional. Video Watched: “The day Beyoncé Turned Black” NOTES ON VIDEO: Sunday night live has the new Beyoncé video and this shows biases that we have and reflects on last week’s notes. The people were reacting to Beyoncé being black and it was a crazy deal, but represented how there is still a lot of discrimination. Video Watched: ON YouTube By: Bob Ciadini- Science of Persuasion NOTES ON VIDEO: Chapter 5 from the author of our book and will discuss the chapter and important points. Researchers have been studying the factors that influence us to say yes for over 60 years and there is a science that causes us to be persuaded. We are supposed to be able to use all available information to guide our thinking and logic but that is commonly not the case. We often uses shortcuts or rules of thumb to guide decision making instead or ethically. 6 shortcuts that guide human behavior: 1. Reciprocity: people are obliged to give back to others if someone did it to or for you first. Example: o Restaurant waitress give you gift with bill=better tip? o One mint: 3% increase o Two: 14% o Three: 23% tip when extra mint is given as walking away (how it was given, not what) Needs to be personalized and unexpected 2. Scarcity: people want more of the things they can have less of Example: Airway taking away a flight that was not being taken often and then the day after the sales take off because the resource had become scarce. The benefits are important but to guide behavior there also needs to be a unique offer and better than what they might be losing. 3. Authority: people are more likely go trust someone who has a diploma for what they are claiming to know, or a uniform or some form of credible evidence. Important to signal to others what makes you a credible knowledgeable other before making attempt of influence You can schedule someone to give you a good introduction and this could increase profits, or help the customer or listener to be more susceptible to hear what you have to say o Expert introduction: 20% rise in appointments and 15% in signed contracts Ethic + costless 4. Consistency: activated when finding commitments that can be made With commitment people will stay with it even if the change is bigger the second time, even if they had previously never thought they would do it. They look for voluntary, active and public commitments and get these in writing Patient writing next appointment details = more likely to attend next appointment 5. Liking: People are nicer to those that they like 3 important factors to liking someone: o Someone similar to us o Someone who compliments us o Someone who cooperates with us Study done: o Group of people were told (Time= money)and got down to business and had a 55% agreement on the business subject o When someone made a personal relationship with the group people then 90% agreed with each other 6. Consensus: when people are unsure they especially look to others for their actions to see how they should react to the situation There was a study done with towels at a hotel and trying to get the customers to reuse them. oWhen told they would help the environment 35% of the customers reused their towels. oWhen told others did it then did a research and found that 75 % did it: then there was an increase in towel reuse by 26%. oWhen saying they stayed in the same room, people reused the towels then it increases by 35%. 2/17/16 Topic of the day Persuasion: is manipulation. Who is talking to who? And what are they saying? All social interactions are acts of persuasion. Attractiveness: makes people more open to listening and believing what the other is saying o Expert says: this causes people to think the person knows what they are talking about. They are also good at trying to convince people. Stealth marketing: ex. watching a whole commercial about something and you don’t even realize what they are selling till it is over. This is everywhere! o When audience holds attitudes that are contrary to the message you are trying to persuade them, you can usually become even more persuasive by using both sides and this causes you to become more reasonable because you are taking both sides. o You can often misdirect the audience and then get them to agree on the underlying subject by coming back to it indirectly at the end of the conversation of speech. People who speak quickly are more persuasive! Slower talkers are not as persuasive, don’t seem as intelligent and they don’t evoke emotions. If you are going to use strong emotions you have to provide the alternate solution or give the listener the context and solution. 1. Systematic processing, or central route : careful consideration of the argument and facts, pondering on the logic and the arguments strong points a. Used when you are making decisions and when it affects you individually. When you are looking into the details and really processing the information. 2. Heuristic processing or peripheral route: looking at the information vaguely and making a quick decision on what is beautiful and good without looking deeply into the subject and information. a. Example: asking someone to vote for the president without the people knowing what they are really voting for. Then the trying to be president does not listen to the people which makes the people think they don’t matter. Persuasive argument video: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver: voting (HBO) Talks about voter ID o Watch to learn what a Persuasive argument looks like. 2/19/16 Video Watched: Philip Zimbardo: the Psychology of Evil TED TALK from September 2008 Focus on Social Influence NOTES: He is talking about people in his life who took drugs and got arrested and he is focusing on the line of good and evil. How people can cross over the line and become good when they were bad and bad when they were good. Shows an image and that the world will always be filled with good and evil. Talks about Lucifer: means light and morning star. Lucifer effect focuses on negatives that people can become. o That people can become evil. Evil is the exercise of power. To intentionally hurt people or harm them. Philip talks about Iraq and people becoming evil during this. The power is what is bad in this situation. o He studied the Americans who were in Iraq and found terrible things. o Showed some ugly pictures of what was done to people in Iraq by Americans and this was a demonstration of evil. Even showed a man who had gone insane and compared it to Davinci ode to humanity: representation of evil. Who is the bad apple: what was responsible? o What transforms someone from good character to bad? o Dispositional: inside of individuals: the bad apples. Situation and external factors outside the individual. o System is powerful (different parts of system): and this changes the situation Situational external Situational internal Finding the system or power Lucifer effect: How figure out why good people turn evil o Celebration of human mind infinite capacity o Makes some people villains and some heroes Philip shows an image that explains the whole TED TALK Stanly Milgram did a study: Holocaust discussion o Learner and then an authority or teacher and this person shocks. o Power has a stronghold on many people especially shown in this study o 2/3 went all the way: disproves the previous known sadistic human nature o DEFINE EVIL: willingness of people to blindly go through with their behavior just because authority told them to. Reverend Jim Jones: many people died by this man who persuaded people o Individual authority Milgram study: Prison study o Found good apples and all of them are healthy o They were embarrassed and taken from their homes by arrest. o Guards were given power and degraded the prisoners. o Only lasted 6 days because the study went out of control o Soldiers in Iraq were no different from the study done here There are 7 Social processes that grease the slippery slope of evil: o Mindlessly taking first step o Dehumanization of others o De-individualization of self o Diffusion of personal responsibility o Blind obedience to authority o Uncritical conformity to group norms o Passive tolerance to evil through inaction or indifference You are not who you want to be James Schlesinger’s report: Lucifer effect and parallels Power without oversight is a prescription for abuse System is guilty and this is because of environment and other things Need shift away from self but to public self-model? Stop dealing with things at an individual level Heroic act is very unruly sometimes: ordinary people are the ones who find the strength to do it. Situations have the power to do 3 things o The same situation that we decide to act on o Heroic imagination is that people are a hero in waiting and they have to deviate from the norms and act. o Most people don’t get involved and then don’t become the hero. Heroes will be deviant o Act when others are passive o Act sociocentric when others are egocentric 3 paths to celebrating an ordinary hero o Perpetrator of evil o Passive interaction o Become the hero Chapter 6: Persuasion CLASS DISCUSSION NOTES: Professor was taught there is no bad children and animals but only bad parenting: but we need to change our focus from blaming the individual and turn to blaming the system and know this is leading to the person’s behavior. Off topic discussion: Change in district drawings!! Maintaining white power and taking out black power and community minorities Back on topic: Greenville crime because of so much poverty Disincorporation of thoughts and system of the structure in this city and how people here don’t participate in legislature because they don’t really have anything anyway. It requires desperation to break the law and the rich don’t usually commit crimes because they have no reason to. The environment and poverty needs to change here in Greenville because we are like a micro America or example of all the poverty here in America. There was less disparity in the past with the haves and have nots and now the lower class is increased but the middle class has decreased substantially and even the upper, upper class is smaller than before. The lower class can’t even buy enough to live on at Walmart. They do not feel like there is an option in the daily world today. There is crime here with armed robbers. These people do not have a job or standard of living and this causes people to feel like they have nothing to lose. Giving incentive to commit crimes. o This means the system needs to change. Legislatives are rearranging desk chairs and this does not change the actual system. Walmart owners are richest in the world now but their workers need food stamps and other forms of financial help. Nothing is changing for the better, things are just getting worse in America today. o The wealthy are not punished like the poor because they have money and support and can get lawyers and have an image to keep up. This is how the world is and this is the culture and system and we need to change since it will only get worse. Lack of punishment for the rich (Example: affluenza) is not really helping set people straight. Bankers on Wall Street in 2007 and 2008 that messed up economy and now America is not punishing them so they think and can get away with bad things. They know now that they can get away with things so it is only going to get worse. There is a social comparison of individuals here in this society of Greenville everyone is racist and there are many people who have failed family members, no role model and don’t think they will succeed either. We need to have every person believing that they have potential and that they could be a hero to someone. The standards need to be reevaluated and set straight, we have to do the next right thing to reach the hero standard. We will feel guilt and it will turn into shame for the rest of your life when you know you should have done something differently. You need to be ready because that one moment could be the thing that changed us and made us set apart as good. The wealthy of the world is not doing the right thing. The rest of the world should be lifted from poverty and this is not happening. There are not even people who can buy things that the wealthy are trying to get wealthier from. The middle class is what helped, but middle class has shrunk and the poor are poorer but now there is no envy of America from the rest of the world.
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