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Anatomy and Physiology 2

by: Ashlee Wilson

Anatomy and Physiology 2 BIOL 2020

Marketplace > University of Memphis > Biology > BIOL 2020 > Anatomy and Physiology 2
Ashlee Wilson
University of Memphis
GPA 3.3
Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Martha Brown

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chapter 19 notes
Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Martha Brown
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlee Wilson on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2020 at University of Memphis taught by Martha Brown in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at University of Memphis.


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Date Created: 02/13/16
AampP 2 Chapter 19 The Blood Functions and Properties of Blood blood is a liquid connective tissue surrounded by a liquid matrix plasma Components in blood red blood cells white blood cells and platelets Plasma consist of water protein and other solutes Blood transports regulates and protects Transports oxygen C02 nutrients hormones heat and waste Regulates homeostasis of all body uids pH temperature and water in cells Protects against excessive loss by clotting and ghting against infections by white blood cells Formation of Blood Cells Lymphocytes live for years Hemopoiesis process of producing blood cells Pluripotent stem cells differentiate into each of the different types of blood cells Lukocytes white blood cell Yellow bone marrow is in the shaft of the bone that stores fat Red bone marrow is at the end of the bones and produceses red blood cells B cells can produce memory cells NK Natural Killer Granular Leukocytes stain well Agranular Leukocytes don t stain well Red Blood Cells Red blood cells erythrocytes have protein hemoglobin that is used to carry oxygen to all cells and carry 23 of all C02 to the lungs lron ion allows each molecule to bind 4 oxygen molecules Biconcave discs red blood cells have no nucleus or other organelles this allows them to be carried easier Hemoglobin is involved in regulating blood ow and blood pressure by release of nitric oxide Carbonic Anhydrase transports 70 of C02 in the plasma This is a bu en Red blood cells live for about 120 days Dead cells are removed by spleen and liver Breakdown products will be recycled and reused Erythropoiesis production of red blood cells begins in the red bone marrow Reticulocytes Immature red blood cells Mature in 12 days Erythopoietin hormone reeaed by kidneys because of lowered oxygen concentration Hypoxia lowered oxygen concentration White Blood Cells Whit blood cellsleukocytes contain a nucleus and organelles but no hemoglobin Classi ed as either granular or agranular Granular neutrophils eosinophils basophils Agranular lymphocytes monocytes main function is combat invading microbes Emigration WBC are able to leave bloodstream and collect at sites of invasion Ex in ammation injury 0 High WBC count usually means an infection or in ammation is taking place 0 Low WBC count may develop due to several causes 0 Differential WBC count will help determine if there is a problem Platelets Platelets are used to clot blood Megakaryocytes in red bone marrow splinter into 20003000 fragments to create the platletes that contain many vesicles but no nucleus Platelets survive for 59 days Formed Elements Stem Cell Transplants from Bone Marrow and Cord Blood 0 Bone marrow transplant are performed to replace cancerous red marrow with normal red marrow Collected from the iliac crest Stem cells collected from umbilical cord after birth and frozen Hemostasis Hemostasis to stop bleeding 0 Process involves vascular spasm Platlete plug formation and blood clotting coagulation 3 stages extrinsic pathway intrinsic pathway and common pathway Consolidates tightens to pull the edges of the damaged vessel together Vitamin K is needed for normal clot formation Used in synthesis in clotting factors Plasmin dissolve sma unwanted clots Blood Groups and Blood Types There are 24 blood groupsand more than 100 antigens O is the universal blood Rh is present in 85 of humans Blood plasma usually contains antibodies that react with A or B anUgens Typing and crossmatching determine a persons blood Drop is mixed with an antiserum that will agglutinate blood cells that possess agglutinogens that react with it Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn


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