MKTG 367 Week 2 Notes
MKTG 367 Week 2 Notes MKTG 367
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Baron on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MKTG 367 at University of Mississippi taught by Lifeng Yang in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Consumer Behavior in Marketing at University of Mississippi.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Week 2.1—Motivation, Ability, Opportunity I. Consumer Motivation “The needs, wants, drives, and desires of an individual that lead him or her toward the purchase of products or ideas. The motivations may be physiologically, psychologically, or environmentally driven.” a. What are the general motivations among consumers nowadays? Motivation to find the “best deal” o Price, quality, quantity o Able to help them solve problems o Sustainability/durability of products The motivation to reduce effort to deal with irrelevant works—the “cognitive miser mindset” o Try to conserve cognitive resources to things you’re interested in rather than wasting your energy on things that you find irrelevant Identify consumer’s needs, success in business II. Motivation a. What is it? Inner state of arousal that creates energy needed to achieve a goal o It’s what motivates people o Can lead to high-effort behavior that is consistent with goals When you’re motivated to do something, you’re more excited about it and want to get it done quickly o High-Effort information processing (i.e., with high attention and lots of thoughts) and decision making Doesn’t have to be a behavior related issue b. What does it do? The lighthouse for Motivated Reasoning o Guiding the amount of effort spent to process the information (more v. less) o Guiding the duration of interest in processing the information (long v. short) o Guiding the direction of information processing (biased v. unbiased, balanced v. one-sided) Are you motivated to hear both criticism and praise? Motivated Reasoning: processing information in a way that allows one to reach the conclusion they want to reach o When we’re motivated, it doesn’t guarantee we’ll do things right o Has to do with your goal; if your goal is to confirm a belief, your motivation will be biased c. Felt Involvement Self-reported arousal in an offering, activity, or decision o Enduring involvement: long term interest o Situational involvement: temporary interest o Cognitive involvement: interest in thinking and learning o Affective involvement: interest in expending emotional energy and evoking deep feelings Having a crush o Response involvement: interest in certain decisions and behaviors Driving a car d. What affects motivation? Personal Relevance o Something that has direct bearing on the self and has potentially significant consequences or implications for lives Your motivation to help others increases if you find the cause personally relevant to you Ex) you’re more willing to donate to a cause that benefits a natural disaster in your hometown than one across the country o Consistency with self-concept Self-concept: our mental view of who we are Value Relevance o Values: abstract, enduring beliefs about what’s right, important, good o Sometimes has to do with legality, but not always o You’re more likely to act on something that aligns with your beliefs Need Relevance o Need: an internal state of tension caused by the disequilibrium from an ideal/desired physical or psychological state III. Needs a. Types of Needs Social v. Nonsocial Needs o Social: needs that are externally directed and relate to other individuals Need for status, to be a model, etc. o Nonsocial: needs for which achievement is not based on other people Need for novelty, control, uniqueness, etc. Functional v. Symbolic v. Hedonic Needs o Functional: need that motivates the search for offerings that solve consumption-related problems o Symbolic: need that relates to how we are perceived by others, how we relate to others, and the esteem in which we are held by others o Hedonic: need that relates to sensory pleasure b. Characteristics of Needs Dynamic, never satisfied Exist in hierarchy: priority can be individually defined Can be internally or externally aroused Can conflict o Approach-Avoidance Really want to do something, but you also want to avoid something else Ex) want to sleep, but want to avoid failing a test o Approach-Approach Want to do 2 things, but can only do one Ex) want to go to a birthday party, but also want time to yourself o Avoidance-Avoidance Want to avoid two things, but can only avoid one Ex) want to avoid failing 2 classes, but you can only focus your efforts on one c. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological Safety Social Egoistic Self-Actualization IV. Needs v. Goals Needs: never fully satisfied Goals: outcomes we would like to achieve A goal is a particular end state or outcome that a person would like to achieve V. Goals a. Types of Goals Concrete or abstract? o Concrete: study for 3 hours/day o Abstract: do well in school Promotion focused or prevention focused? o Prevention: toothpaste helps prevent tooth decay Mistakes you’ll make by not using the product o Promotion: toothpaste will give you a bright smile Emphasizes what you gain by using the product b. Goals and Emotions Appraisal Theory o Proposes that emotions are based on an individual’s assessment of a situation or an outcome and its relevance to his or her goals o Whether consumers feel good or bad about a product depends on how he/she thinks about or appraises a situation or outcome o People who are angry are confident in the way they feel, more likely to take risks and have an affected judgment VI. Perceived Risk “The extent to which the consumer is uncertain about the personal consequences of buying, using, or disposing of an offering” Consumer products and services are often touted as ways to avoid risky outcomes a. Circumstances Causing Increased Perceived Risk Lack of information o If you don’t know what kind of food is in front of you, you’ll find it risky and may not eat it Newness High Price o Something has a greater perceived risk if it is too expensive Complex technology Brand differentiation b. Types of Perceived Risk Performance risk: the possibility that the offering will perform less than expected Financial Risk: the possibility that the offering has the potential to create financial harm Physical (Safety) Risk: the possibility that the offering has the potential to create physical harm or harm one’s safety Social Risk: the possibility the item has potential to do harm to one’s social standing Psychological Risk: the possibility that the offering has the potential to harm one’s sense of self and thus create negative emotions Time Risk: The possibility the offering has the potential to lead to loss of time (wasted time) VII. Consumer Ability a. Resources to Act The extent to which consumers have the resources needed to make an outcome happen Financial Resources Cognitive Resources Emotional Resources Physical Resources Social and Cultural Resources Education and Age VIII. Consumer Opportunity Time Distraction Amount/complexity/repetition and control of information a. Enhancing Information Processing Repeat communications Simplify Reduce distractions/time pressure Reduce purchasing/using/learning time Provide information
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