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Traditional World Music Korea Week 5

by: Bridget Dixon

Traditional World Music Korea Week 5 MUSI 3583 503

Marketplace > Oklahoma State University > Music > MUSI 3583 503 > Traditional World Music Korea Week 5
Bridget Dixon
OK State
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

These notes cover the chapter over Korea.
World Traditional Music
Kunzel, Stephen N
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Dixon on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUSI 3583 503 at Oklahoma State University taught by Kunzel, Stephen N in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 582 views. For similar materials see World Traditional Music in Music at Oklahoma State University.


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Date Created: 02/13/16
Traditional World Music – Korea Intro + Geography • Korean music is an acoustic reflection Korea's historical, geographical, and ethnic identity. • Manchurian, Mongolian, and Siberian peoples shared migration from the Central Asian mountain ranges • Korea is confined to the Korean Peninsula that stretches in a vertical span of 1,100 kilometers totaling 222,154 square kilometers or 85,500 square miles in northeastern Asia, neighboring with China across the Amnok (Yalu) river, with Russia across the Tuman (Tumen) river, and with Japan across the East Sea (Sea of Japan). • 70% of land is mountainous • vary scenic • Regards human life as part of nature • Likened to human breathing • Use materials such as wood, bamboo, clay, gourd, and silk (non- metallic) • Translatated as playing the string or playing of the string and closest to the technique of vibrato, nonghyôn is said to reflect the idiosyncratic Korean sense of time and space corresponding to the cycle of nature  • Traditional Korean folk music, called minsok kugak, has been typically composed and transmitted orally from singer to singer and player to player. • In the recent postmodern drive for cultural globalization, fushion kugak (“fusion Korean music”) and ch’angjak kugak (“newly made Korean music”) have come to dominate the traditional Korean music scene, and this trend begins to show signs of endangering or mutating what modern Korea set out to preserve – the remnants of traditional Korean music. Philosophical Foundations sought guidance and direction from the timeless principle of ûmyang- ohaeng—"two ways and five roads, Korean music typically uses the pentatonic scale of kung, sang, kak, chi, and U Foundation = Ancient Book of Ceremony Music meant to embody the movements of the mind The tone, pitch, and quality of the five basic notes represents the social hierarchy, along with material, directional, and seasonal symbolisms reintroduced here. “correct music” – Korean gov’t believes music can either enforce or corrupt the social order typically utilizes two instruments: Chuk (beginning, tapped 3X) and Eo (end, scrapping toothed back 3X) Spirituality Musical performance tied to spiritual and survival needs After the first Korean kingdom was founded, several more were created. Each celebrated hunting, farming and harvesting by involving the entire nation in a celebration of song and dance From the first century BC, the tribal states regrouped into four distinct kingdoms: • Koguryô (37BC-668 AD) in the north • Paekche (18BC-660AD) succeeded by Mahan • Kaya (43-562AD) from Pyônhan • Silla (57BC-935AD) from Chinhan Political rulers were also spiritual leaders In Silla, leaders were first groomed as hwarang, the "flower youths," who were trained in music, poetry, dance, ritual ceremonies as well as the affairs of the nation and martial prowess Song and dance were also believed to hold spiritual power. th 4 century – musical cultures of C. Asia along with Buddhism entered Korea 2 instruments created at this time 1. the 21-string kayagûm, a zither from Kaya, finds similarities with the Japanese koto, Chinese guzheng, and Vietnamese đàn tranh. 2. 6-string kômun´go was believed to have been modified by Koguryo minister Wang Sanak Narye – festivals involving both exorcism and entertainment Choson distanced itself from Buddisim, placing music on low importance Categorized as kwangdae (male performer), kisaeng (female performer), and mudang (mistress of shamanic ritual) or paksu (master of shamanic ritual, much smaller in number than female) All left to fend for themselves Class System Rise of middle class leads to more clientele for artists and musicians Mixing of cultures and musical traditions Genre, Context, and Style Can be classified in terms of hierarchy, regions, or functionality Kugak – “national music”, know for being “old and “Korean” Reconstructed on the modern stage Sanjo  “scattered melodies and modes”  a solo instrumental music accompanied on ch’anggo  when court musicians first heard this music, they thought it was scatted and disorganized  highly developed art of improvisation o requires much skill  The first sanjo experiment is credited to Kim Ch´angjo (1865- 1920) on kayagûm around 1890, and the flamboyantly jazzy musical style was quickly adopted onto other instruments such as kômun´go, taegûm (transverse bamboo flute), ajaeng (six- string bowed zither), and haegûm (two-string vertical fiddle).  A sanjo piece typically moves through the following rhythmic cycle, from slow to faster, reaching the climax, then slowing down to the finish. This cycle is also typical of salpuri and shinawee. P’ungmal  Also called nongak, or “farmer’s music”  A dynamic outdoor ensamble of drums and gongs parading through villages and marketplace always  Most photographed ritual  Related to protest and anti-government demostrations o Called the music of “the people” Samul-nori  “four-piece play”, rooted in the tradition of p’ungmul  a newly emerged type of chamber percussion ensemble with kkwaenggari, ch'anggo, ching (big gong), and puk (barrel drum)  In Seoul, 1978, four young male traditional percussionists from the itinerant namsadang musical tradition debuted a chamber percussive music with select rhythmic patterns from various parts of Korea. o Hip and in-sync o Captivated groups internationally  Neither P’ungmal and Samul-nori are practiced in Korea any longer.  Korean students in US still reconstruct traditional musical practices  LA Riots of 1992 – protest against the victimization of Koreans Vocal Music  sijo was a poetic-musical commentary on life and reflection of the aesthetic sensibilities of upper class Koreans who had access to education and time for contemplation. Composed and delivered orally, sijo was a powerfully direct delivery of a political message or stance  professor of love  Work Songs  In pre-industrial Korea, songs accompanied specific types of labor o Helped to transcend pain and boredom  Divided into several categories: farming, weaving, transporting, fishing, milling, sewing, and washing, among others  Each country has its own stylistic and lyrical variations Buddhist Chant  Unique system of self-discipline and faith  pômp´ae that mix singing and chanting  72 instruments used in the past, now only 13  yombul – associated with the Korean temple atmosphere inclusives of mountains, etc.  The recommended chanting strategies are applicable to singing as a whole: when chanting, straighten your posture, stabilize your energy, do not shake your body or act superficially, do not chant too loud nor too low, the volume should be commensurate with your energy level, focus entirely on the sound of yômbul, and on the meaning of the text, so that your voice and the meaning of the text come together and connect Shaman Songs  According to Kirby, theatre originated from shaman ritual séances, and shaman ritual is inherently dramatic  powerful and timeless inspiration for many folk performances as well as postmodern artistic experiments today  mostly female  two general dominations o N. of the Han River – possession o South – mostly groomed and ordained by heredity  Introduced here is the Chindo Sikkim-kut, "ritual of cleansing" from Chindo island, designated Intangible Cultural Property No. 72, a ritual of purging and guiding the soul of the dead to the other world. The instruments used are: ching, puk, ch'anggo, p'iri (bamboo flute), ajaeng, and sometimes taegûm and haegûm if available The story-singing tradition of p'ansori is an interesting Korean musical and literary journey: from the oral culture where it was created to the technology-based modern age. It started as humble marketplace storytelling. Entering the nineteenth century, despite the Neo- Confucian persecution of performance and performing artists, p'ansori became a preferred entertainment with support from many prominent royal and aristocratic patrons including Emperor 24jong (1852-1919) and his father Regent Taewôn´gun (1820-1898) . In order to adjust to the rising expectations of patrons and audiences, the singers, in collaboration with interested literary scholars, revised the existing p'ansori narratives to be worthy of the newfound venues. Sometime during the nineteenth century p'ansori reinvented itself as the "five- narrative" canon grounded in the teachings of five Confucian cardinal virtues, i.e., filial piety, wifely chastity, sibling order, loyalty 25 for your master, and gentlemanly honor and friendship . Toward the latter part of the nineteenth century, women began to train in p'ansori. At the threshold of the twentieth century, the masters of the musical theatre of p'ansori were leading the modernization of Korean drama and theatre, but soon were met by new dramatic, literary, and musical trends entering en masse from West. The fact that Japan colonized Korea (1910-1945) further hindered Koreans´ construction of cultural and performance identities in this turbulent time. In 1963, p'ansori was designated as Korea´s National Intangible Cultural Asset No. 5 to be protected from extinction, and was designated by UNESCO as world oral heritage in 2003. P'ansori P'ansori singing typically utilizes three melodic modes: sad (kyemyônjo), magnanimous (ujo), and peaceful (p'yongjo). Demarcated by the Sômjin River that flows through the hills and plains of Chôlla province, there exist some stylistic differences between sop´yônje, "western school of singing" west of the river, and tongp´yônje, "eastern school of singing" east of the river. In comparison, the former utilizes more sadly drawn out modes, while the latter is built on more strident modes. In performance, the role of the drummer is important in that he supports, times, and helps energize the singer with drumming and exuberant ch'wimsae, "cries of encouragement." P ´ansori utilizes seven or eight different rhythmic cycles introduced earlier in connection with sanjo. The ideal vocal quality is typically husky, unadorned, sincere, and emotive. Included here is an excerpt from Sugungga, Song of the Underwater Palace: In terms of traditional music, what are the elements in the tunes and the sounds that constitute the "traditional" despite changes? Even within Korean music circles, there are debates and justifications that traditional Korean music is too difficult for the modern Korean ear and therefore should be modified and fused with modern taste and structure. In the so-called postcolonial era, many nations around the globe rediscover, resuscitate, and represent their "traditional musical performances" as a way of reconstructing their nations, ethnic solidarities, and cultural identities. Performance traditions from the past also provide artists with global resources and inspirations for their modern and post-modern inventions and adaptations. "Traditional" was once a "popular" reflection of its time and sentiment. Charged with such a daunting responsibility of living and interpreting the two worlds through your art, you cannot help but remain a perpetual student of the tradition you strive to embody, humbly and happily. Call and response Lead vocal loader and clearer – shows dominance


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