New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 1: Defining Information Technology

by: Misha Patel

Chapter 1: Defining Information Technology 01:198:170

Marketplace > Rutgers University > Computer Programming > 01:198:170 > Chapter 1 Defining Information Technology
Misha Patel
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Computer Applications for Business

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Computer Applications for Business notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

This is an outline of Chapter 1 in the textbook and of the Chapter 1 lecture notes.
Computer Applications for Business
Professor Stoll
Class Notes
computers, Computer Applications, business




Popular in Computer Applications for Business

Popular in Computer Programming

This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Misha Patel on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:198:170 at Rutgers University taught by Professor Stoll in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Computer Applications for Business in Computer Programming at Rutgers University.

Similar to 01:198:170 at Rutgers

Popular in Computer Programming


Reviews for Chapter 1: Defining Information Technology


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/13/16
Chapter 1: Defining Information Technology COMPUTATIONS GREATEST HITS Digitizing information  “digital information”  “data represented using numbers”  the big breakthrough – getting a machine to read digital information  Herman Hollerith (statistician) o First “production” application of digital information o Knew that processing census data by hand was slow (8 years) so he invented a machine to tabulate data based on holes punched in cards (1 year) How to Digitize a Punch Card: A punch card is moved toward the left by a metal roller. Above the roller is a bundle of metal wires called a brush. When the hole moves over the roller, the brush pokes through the hole and touches the roller, making an electrical connection. Processing the Information  The machine can count the cards using its odometer, which counts cards like a car counts miles  Separate the input into the two stacks and then run each stack through the machine again to count them  The number of males and females in the input can be determined mechanically No Computer Needed  This device ≠ computer  It is a card reader and stacker, detecting the presence/absence of a hole in the card  By careful application, it can perform information-processing activities o Ex: How many men and women are in a population Stored-Program Computers All Hardware All The Time  Tabulating machines = electro-mechanical devices  Hardware: built out of wires, rollers and motors  To change the operations that the machine performedrewired o More versatile: machines evolved to have plugboards to help “programmers” rewire them.  Main Problem: only very simple operations were possible when the “program” was expressed using wires Put the Program in Memory  The electronic computer solved the “rewiring” problem by using a special device o The central processing unit-which performs instructions stored in the computer’s memory o Effectively changed instructions, “hard” wires  “soft” memory bites. Software o Advantages of Soft Instructions compared to Hard Instructions  Programs can be changed rapidly  Programs can be much more complex  Computations are autonomous – they can run on their own without a person attending to them Big and Expensive  Main problem with early computers (CPU part): complexity  Difficult technical problem: to build a hardware device that can read, decode, and perform instructions  1 electronic computer: ENIAC Burned Out  Another issue: lack of reliability  Electronic circuits were built from vacuum tubes  An instruction executing CPU required A LOT of them to work all at once, that takes a lot better reliability. 1 or more tubes would fail causing the computer to crash  Electronic computer became a powerful “game changing tool” o Reason: transistors The Switch to Transistors  3 Bell Lab Scientists received Nobel Prize for their 1947 invention: semiconductor transistor o John Bardeen o Walter Brattain o William Shockley  Transistors – solved MANY problems o Low power, meaning less heat (and streetlight dimming) o Extremely reliable o Small in size and weight o Made computers affordable (to corporations) o Mainly allowed them to have much more complex CPUs Much Assembly Required  Building a computer/large electronic system in 1950s/60s was a tedious and time-consuming activity  Separate parts had to be assembled Integrated Circuits  Solution: Integration o “silicon technology” – Silicon Valley Integration  Integrated circuits (ICs) – are monolithic blocks (chips) made of silicon and closely related elements in which both active parts like transistors and connective parts like wires are fabricated together in a multistep process. Photolithography  Makes ICs so spectacularly successful  Chip makers “print” the wires and all the other parts onto the chip The Genius of Printing  To print on a chip, the photolithography process requires a mask to specify the shapes of a layer-it’s like a photographic negative used before digital cameras  Doesn’t matter how complex or simple the mask is Progress?  Computers now are fabricated as chips that can be held between two fingers “Personal” Computers  Now fitting more transistors on each chip – known as “Moore’s Law” o A computer of a given capacity needed fewer and fewer chips which made them cheaper and cheaper A Personal Computer? st  Alto: 1 serious attempt to make a personal machine  People said there’s no reason any individual to have a computer in their home but  Games, primitive word processing and email attracted enough users to push the develop forward Serious Resistance  Adults had a fear of using the computers  More successful with younger users which began a generational gap The Internet  APRANet o Key idea: to allow these separate networks to connect together only if they both used a common communication protocol called TCP/IP o Internet (a network of networks) was born o “dial-up method” - slow and fuzzy. Today – broadband o HTTP and the World Wide Web  Idea: was to create an online center where everyone could access the documents, images, and other resources and other resources of CERN, the agency for whom Bernes-Lee worked  HTTP protocol = universal o Your browser (the client) and the host (the Web server) know exactly how to interact: what’s requested and what will be returned, and how, and in what format o TCP/IP is essential  Mosaic: first widely used Web Browser o Firefox: grandchild of Mosaic Layered Software Development  Prior to 1980s: programs were monolithic with little structure, difficult to write and impossible to maintain  After 1980s: software development has steadily matured becoming more disciplined and sophisticated  Software development applies a layered approach in which programs at one level apply code for the more primitive operations from lower levels, and provide more advanced facilities for higher levels An Accumulation of Knowledge  Programmers can use the software in these boxes without ever understanding how those programs work, beyond knowing the proper way to use them. They are building on the work of thousands of other programmers, who have contributed to these layers  As technology advances, more boxes will be included ad more layers will be added.  Software gets more and more complex, and more and more sophisticated based on the combined efforts of many programmers. We build on what we can already do The Great Part of the Greatest Hits  Reducing the impact of complexity has often been a key result of these discoveries o The CPU and soft instructions allowed a machine to do more complex computations, and to accomplish them autonomously o Integration and photolithography all but eliminated the complexity of building electronic devices o Layered software development allows programmers to build on the work of thousands of others without the need to understand the operation of their computations-only how to use them. Others will build on their work TERMS OF ENDEARMENT Tech Support  You have to use the right words and computer terms so they know what you are talking about  It will be amazingly effective and get your issue solved faster Anchoring Knowledge  Learning the computer terminology and look out for it and understand it COMPUTERS, SOFTWARE, ALGORITHMS Find the Computer  Computers become smaller and cheaper  Most people already own many computers Processors  Computers are everywhere o Embedded as components of phones, the Wii, microwave ovens, music players, brakes, etc  Computer’s more technical name: processors  Processor: includes the CPU, a small amount of memory usually called a cache, and is connected to some input and/or output devices. o The main variation comes with the devices the computer is connected to, and of course, the software ARMs Race  ARM: a processor specialized to be part of other systems, though it’s found everywhere these days  Advanced RISC Machine o RISC: Reduced Instruction-Set Computer Software  Software: a collective term for programs, the instructions computers perform to implement applications o “instructs” the computer hardware by providing the steps needed to perform a task, say, to display a Web page or play a game o the computer, using the CPU, follows the program and carries out the instructions extremely rapidly and with great accuracy o Specifying what to do is the point of greatest leverage  Programing: “instructing an agent to perform some function or action” by giving a step-by-step process  Agent: anything that can follow the instructions Algorithms  Algorithm: a precise and systematic method for producing a specified result  For a process to be an algorithm it must have these 5 properties o Specifying input o Specifying output  Means to say what the computation is given as data, and what it will produce as a result o Definite  The whole process is spelled out unambiguously o Effective  It is within the “abilities” of the agent following the instructions o Finite  The agent will eventually finish the computation, giving the right answer, or stop and report that none is possible THE WORDS FOR IDEAS “Abstract”  Abstract: to remove the basic concept, idea, or process from a situation o The removed concept is usually expressed in another, more succinct and usually more general form, called an abstraction  Noticing 2 points o Many but not all of the details of the story are irrelevant to the concept o The idea-the abstraction-has meaning beyond the story  In computing, separating the relevant from the irrelevant, and applying the abstraction to other cases, are both essential “Generalize”  To express an idea, concept or process that applies to many situations  Idea  generalization “Operationally Attuned”  To apply what we know about how a device or system works to simplify its use “Mnemonic”  A rather unusual term that we use in IT  Is an aid for remembering something Lecture Notes What is information technology? Utlizing that data for business environment Why do I need to know about it? Every business uses computers -input & output data -manipulate data -store a program How we do Business today -Cloud services -Data analysis -World Wide Web -Social Media -Video Games Data -Digitalizing information Data represented numbers The breakthrough Machines reading digital info Census data digitalized (1890) 1880 it took 8 years to process the data by hand Punch cards digitalized the process Fully mechanical All Hardware PC - hardware and software From vacuum tubes, transistors, integrated circuits It gave off a lot of heat 30 tons Hardware -Keyboard -Mouse Output -Monitor -Printer The software stack -you don’t need every single part Every programmer doesn’t have to know every piece Specialize in a certain type of program, application, hardware drivers, to the monitor If one piece stops working, you can still use the computer but you wont be able to do the certain action User: User mode, applications S/W Stack: kernel mode drivers, OS IO Manager, File System, Volume Manager, Disk Class Driver, Minipot Driver Cache Manager H/W: Hardware Drivers, Host Bus, HBA Cache System recovery Software Stack -To check out a vid on YB using a phone you would: Use the browser application to get to YouTube Use the browser app uses the window manager and several other frameworks Abstraction To remove the basic concept idea or process from a situation -abstraction helps hiding complexity -details that are irrevelant for understanding from a special point of view are ignored Abstraction focuses upon the essential concepts Algorithms: a precise and systematic method for producing a specified result or solve a problem The underlying goal is to find the best possible way to do something effectively and efficiently. Not all algorithms are inherently efficient nor effective A slow but SMART computer might be able to do something faster than a faster but NOT SO SMART, one. This smartness is the algorithm, hence, the process to be used to solve a problem Algorithm is not a program


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.