REAL PSYCHOLOGY LECTURE NOTES FOR UNIT 1
REAL PSYCHOLOGY LECTURE NOTES FOR UNIT 1 PSY 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Rouse on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at University of Kentucky taught by Andrea Friedrich in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Unit 1 Lecture Notes The Science of Psychology People who raised questions o Socrates o Plato o Aristotle o Descartes o Locke Plato = student of Socrates Believed min d and body is separate Aristotle o Plato’s Student o Mind and body is not separate “tabula rosa” (clean slate) Descartes o Mind and body were separate o Mind- spiritual entity o Body- material entity o Have to connect through pineal gland o Believed some ideas innate; concept of self and God o Rationalism- knowledge should be sought through the process of reasoning John Lock o Bring back “tabula rosa” o Empericism- all ideas and knowledge gained experience o Knowledge should be sought through observation How we separate and study behavior o Case studies o Surveys o Naturalistic o Correlation o Experimentation Correlation- exists whenever 2 variables are associated or related to each other Scientists Wilhelm Wundt 1879 First Psychology Lab Leipzig, Germany Atoms of the mind Sound/response experiment to find out how long it takes to process Structuralism Edward Titchener Early school of Psychology that attempted to discover the basic elements of the human mind Student of Wundt Introspection= “looking inside” William James Functionalism School of Psychology that focused on functions of the mind and behavior in adapting to the environment What is Psychology? Until 1920’s- science of mental life 1920’s-1960’s science of observational behavior Today-science of behavior(any observable action) and mental process is a science A Scientific Attitude Emperical Questions- questions that can be answered by making objective observations Skepticism-explanation for a behavior is accepted only after other possible explinations have been ruled Critical Thinking- thinking that examines assumptions discerns, hidden values Scientific Method 1. Theories- statements about relationship between variables 2. Personal experiences 3. Daily observations 4. Someone Else’s work Correlational Studies Correlation exists when 2 variables are associated Positive correlation- two things increase or decrease together Negative correlation- inverse relationship, one increases, the other decreases Correlation Coefficient- indicates the strength and direction of correlation o Ranges from -1.00 to +1.00 o R0.00 – no relation between variables o R= +1.00 – perfect positive correlation o R= -1.00 – perfect negative correlation o .76-.99 = very strong o .51-.75 = moderate o .01-.25 = weak Correlation does not imply causation Third variable problem- causes both variables to change Experimentation Investigates cause and effect relationships Investigator manipulates the factors if interest, while holding consistent other factors Independent variable- variable that is being manipulated Dependent variable- what is being measured Control Condition- serves as a comparison for the experimental condition Research with Humans Informed consent Confidentiality Debriefing Deception- tell subject you are studying when you are not o Some experiments aren’t ethical o Should only be used when no other alternative is available o Should not harm participants Research with Animals Not common in psychology (only 5%) 95% of animals include rats, mice, rabbits, or birds Must be reviewed and approved Weigh potential bbenefits against possible harm Avoid unnecessary pain Set standards for food, housing, sleeping, maintain well being Why are animals used? To learn about people- o simpler, no outside factors, etc. social; some experiments are permissible only through animals o to learn about animals: understand how different species think and behave
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