Cultural Anthropology Week 5 Notes
Cultural Anthropology Week 5 Notes Anth 2800
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Rothert on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 2800 at University of Toledo taught by Shahna Arps in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in Language at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Anthropology Ch. 5 Notes Subsistence Strategies: the pattern of behavior used by a particular society to obtain food in a particular environment HUMAN ADAPTATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT human cultural adaptations have resulted in great increases in population that, in turn, have further altered the environment, frequently in unintentional ways Foraging (hunting and gathering): fishing, hunting, and collecting vegetable food o as pop. increased foragers spread out across the world every continent except antarctica was settled by 1600012500 years ago o 1100010000 years ago humans in the Old World began to domesticate plants and animals o Agricultural revolution: the transition to food production o foraging set significant limits on pop. growth and density, on the complexity of social organization. Sedentary: settled, living in one place o the domestication of plants and animals supported increased populations and sedentary lives cultivation did not arise everywhere o foraging is less work o benefits of agriculture are far less apparent o sometimes foraging was more dependable o cultivation is sometimes less dependable Industrial revolution: replacement of human and animal energy with machines o increased human productivity o high level of inequality o major source of environmental degradation and climate change MAJOR TYPES OF SUBSISTENCE STRATEGIES 5 basic types of subsistence strategies o Foraging: use of plant and animal resources naturally available in the environment o Pastoralism: a foodgetting strategy that depends on the care of domesticated herd animals o horticulture: production of plants, using a simple, non mechanized technology and where the fertility of gardens and fields is maintained through long periods of fallow o agriculture: a form of food production in which fields are in permanent cultivation using plows, animals, and techniques of soil and water control o Industrialism: the process of the mechanization of production population density: the number of people inhabiting a unit of land (usually given as people per square kilometer) productivity (food production): yield per person per unit of land efficiency (in food production): yield per person per hour of labor invested FORAGING: o diverse strategy that includes hunting large and small animals, fishing and collecting various plant food o don't produce food o use simple tools o little impact on the environment o women responsible for gathering o supports a low population density 2050 people o almost always involves seasonal movement o few material possessions o extreme flexibility in social arrangements gets rid of hierarchy in their societies o everyone used to be a forager o THE PINTUPI, A FORAGING SOCIETY IN AUSTRALIA used wide variety of seasonally available plant and animal foods and their detailed knowledge of their environment in their adaptation main constraint is water small isolated family groups as low as one person per 150200 sq miles extreme climate little rain “hungry time” when temp reaches 120 degrees both men and women spend most of the day in the food quest if there is no water by december, foraging ceases almost entirely, women stay at camp, men travel up to 12 miles a day in search of food, each person only takes in 800 calories, and weak individuals are sometimes fed blood from the healthy ones survived like this until the mid20th century because of drought they moved out last Pintupi left the Western Desert in 1984 *****because of either choice or government pressure most foragers have moved to permanent settlements. Old trading relationships between foragers and non foraging people have in most places disappeared. Most of the old foragers now rely on markets for most of their food. PASTORALISM o depend on products of domesticated herd animals o adaptation to live in an environment that, because of hilly terrain, dry climate, or unsuitable soil, cannot support a large human population through agriculture but can support enough native vegetation for animals if they are allowed to range over a large area *****not like ranching, where animals are fed grain that can be used to feed humans, pastoralism doesn't require animals and humans to fight for the same resources o herd cattle, sheep, goats, yaks, or camels (all produce both meat and milk) o major areas are: east africa, north africa, sw asia, central asia, and sub arctic o Transhumant pastoralism: a form of pastoralism in which herd animals are moved regularly throughout the year to different areas as pasture becomes available men and boys move animals while women and children stay in a permanent settlement o Nomadic Pastoralism: a form of pastoralism in which the whole social group (men, women, children) and their animals move in search of pasture o survival of the societies relies on relationships with sedentary neighbors to trade with o THE YARAHMADZAI: A NOMADIC PASTORALIST SOCIETY IN IRAN mixed pastoralist adaptation that has undergone changes due to both a global economy and the restraints of adapting to the control of the national state small camps with 520 families migrates constantly anywhere from 525 miles in each move HORTICULTURE o depend on the production of plants using simple, non mechanized technology such as hoes or digging sticks, but not animals, irrigation techniques, or plows o don't produce surpluses o low population density usually less than 150 people per square mile, but they can be quite large ranging from 1001000 people o can be practiced in dry lands typically a tropical forest adaptation o Swidden (slash and burn) cultivation: a form of cultivation in which a field is cleared by felling the trees and burning the bush o fields are used for 15 yrs then laid fallow for up to 20 yrs need 56 times as much fallow land as they are actually cultivating o grow crops, but also hunt, fish, or raise some domestic animals o THE LUA’: A HORTICULTURE SOCIETY IN SOUTHEAST ASIA swidden cultivators use land for 12 yrs and then let it lie fallow for 9 yrs cut down small trees, but only trim larger ones government pressure has almost destroyed their way of life USING ANTHROPOLOGY: ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND NUTRITION o anthropologists try to understand the foods that people eat and their effect on health and nutrition o Nevin Scrimshaw and Mary Goodrich: tried to improve the nutritional status of people made a cheap protein source based on cottonseed meal that was culturally acceptable and extremely inexpensive o James Howe concerned with discovering what we can or cannot learn from the diets of various groups disproved theory that chocolate could help in cardiovascular health AGRICULTURE o the same piece of land is permanently cultivated with use of the plow, draft animals, and more complex techniques of water and soil control than horticulturalists use o irrigation is important o also use natural fertilization, selective breeding of livestock and crops, and crop rotation o supports higher population densities o greater productivity also results from more intensive labor o requires more capital investment o more control over food production but are more vulnerable to the environment o associated with sedentary villages, the rise of cities and states, occupational diversity, social stratification, and other complex forms of social organization o Peasants: rural cultivators who produce for the subsistence of their household but are also integrated into larger, complex state societies o MUSHA: A PEASANT AGRICULTURAL VILLAGE IN EGYPT two year crop rotation based on both summer and winter 1950’s was when they began to use machines, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides women keep house, care for animals, and make cheese children cut clover for animals, and help harvest cotton head of household makes agricultural purchases: hiring labor, schedule the use of machinery, arranging for the water flow into his fields government is heavily involved in agriculture profits are uncertain INDUSTRIALISM o focus of production moves away from food and towards other goods and services o very small portion of population is involved in producing food o leads to increased population growth, expanded consumption of resources, increased occupational specialization, and a shift from working for subsistence and selling the products of one's labor to selling the labor itself for hourly or yearly wages o almost all transactions are mediated by money o based on principles that consumption must constantly expand, and material standards of living must always rise o Globalization: the integration of resources, labor, and capital into a global network o characterized by well coordinated specialized labor forces that produce goods and services and by much smaller elite and managerial classes that oversee the day to day operations of the workplace and control what is produced and how it is distributed o generate much higher levels of inequality o THE BEEF INDUSTRY: INDUSTRIALIZED AGRICULTURE IN THE U.S. 1980’s is when most family farms were no longer economically viable and farmers lost their land large farming corporations employing mass production technologies could only meet this demand cost of labor is a factor in the production of meat immigrants were used as workers the waste produced by the animals could seep into groundwater and contaminate critical resources horrific working conditions difficult and dangerous work THE GLOBAL MARKETPLACE o contemporary world is characterized by connectedness and change o anthropology is particularly sensitive to the complex linkages among local, regional, national,and global contexts that structure the modern world