PSY 245 Class Notes (2.16-2.18)
PSY 245 Class Notes (2.16-2.18) PSY 245
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristi Dorsey on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 245 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Mark Galizio in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Behavior in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
2.16.16 Antecedent Information Effects of any given drug (dose-response curve) reflects healthy, young, non-pregnant adults; most research done on healthy people Drugs effect people differently Elderly and babies more sensitive to effects of drugs Pregnant Women & Psychoactive Drug Use Drug poses more risk to fetus than mom “Fetal barrier” (similar to blood-brain barrier) Psychoactive drugs penetrate the fetal barrier and enter the blood stream of the developing fetus Exceptionally vulnerable to damaging effects of chemicals (Teratogenic) due to rapid growth EX: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome o 40’s & 50s – doctor may suggest drinking before bed to help pregnant women sleep o Evidence for discovery of FAS Alcohol given to pregnant rats during certain phases of pregnancy Offspring deformed in particular ways OBGYN medical personnel reviewed hospital records of alcoholics who drank through pregnancy FAS syndromes: facial anomalies & intellectual disabilities Primarily occurs with heavy drinking Research Characteristics Most research we’ll discuss is based on research with young, healthy men Fear that if females enter into a drug study, they may become pregnant, thus harming the fetus Today it is encouraged for women to participate in drug studies (given daily pregnancy tests) Effects of Drugs When referring to a drug, he’s referring to research on that specific drug, not black market drugs Not sure what you’re getting through street or web Dealer could be cutting the drug to make more profit, which can be toxic in some cases Getting active drug most of the time, but not always Double Blind Research Best way to learn about drugs is double blind research Some participants get placebo, others get active drug, and no one knows who is receiving the drug vs. the placebo Compare chemical action of drug to what user expects from the drug Most research hasn’t used double-blind studies (unethical to assign a group to take a drug over a long period of time, such as 2 years, to research long-term effects) Can do an experiment to assess chronic effects of drugs on animals, but not humans Other form of drug research Correlational study You can decide which experimental group to be in Some participants take a drug (ecstasy) and others don’t At some point in life experimenters will give a survey to those participants to ask about drug use Might also do a brain scan Con: multiple factors might differentiate the people that take ecstasy a lot (i.e. polydrug use); when comparing the two groups, it’s hard to know what those differences are due to Major Stimulant History Includes cocaine, amphetamines, and bath salts Cocaine first major stimulant used by humans Inca people high in Andes Mountain (Columbia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Argentina) Cocaine grows in various elevations on bush indigenous to Andes slopes Can easily purchase coca leaves along roadsides throughout South America today Spanish Conquistadors Explored those areas of South America Found the Incas who used coca leaf extensively o Chewed coca leaf o Hold it between cheek and gum o Similar to tobacco use in North America Jesuit priests began to convert Incas to Catholicism in 1500s and 1600s o Disturbed by the religious significance of the coca leaf o Worshiped goddess Mama Coca o Some of these religious beliefs remain today Used the coca leaf to enslave the Andean people Brought coca back to the New World Psychiatrist Jerome Jaffe One of the first to do anthropological research on drugs Went to Andean regions in 1960s Performed longitudinal observational study on chewing of coca leaf Incas (coqueros or cocaine addicts) would get a “cha” going first thing In the morning by chewing the coca leaf o Sometimes ground ash in pestle & mortar and put a wad of ash with coca leaf o Makes your mouth more alkaline (less acidic) so you absorb more cocaine from the leaf o Similar to the use of coffee or tea (caffeine) in North America toady o Report that it prevents high altitude sickness and gives them energy to do work throughout the day Jaffe gave the coqueros medical & psychiatric tests to see long-term effects of coca leaf use o Found no evidence that chewing the coca leaf was causing medical or psychiatric problems when compared to individuals who didn’t use it o 1960s – could not find coca leaves for sale in the big cities; when coqueros traveled to the big cities and did not have access to coca, they did not seem to exhibit withdrawal symptoms Concluded that cocaine was not a problematic drug From Andes to the United States Spanish brings coca to the new world th 19 century – coca became popular in Europe o EX: in a typical bar or restaurant a glass of wine or mixed drink would be garnished with a coca leaf U.S. – dope fiend’s paradise; cocaine was widely available 1914 Harrison Act passed & cocaine is banned Metcalf’s wine of coca (wine that contained coca before it was banned) o Public speakers, singers, and actors found wine of coca to be a valuable tonic to the vocal cords (helped with throat pain) o Athletes, pedestrians, and baseball players have found by practical experience that a steady course of coca taken both before and after any trial of strength or endurance will impart energy and prevent fatigue o Elderly people found it to be a reliable aphrodisiac (food, drink, or drug that stimulates sexual desire) superior to other drugs Cocaine sold as toothache drops for kids th Turn of the 20 century – epidemic of coca use developed o Chemistry had developed o Could now remove active ingredient from coca leaf (cocaine) o Now people were taking a more potent drug Cocaine first local anesthetic Freud and Cocaine Freud was a medical student in Europe Began to take it himself (he was a depressive guy) and it lifted his spirits Began to prescribe cocaine to patients suffering from depression and initially found good results First to recognize the importance of biological factors in mental illness o Set the stage for modern thinking in neurosceince Dr. Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow Freud’s friend who experienced a war injury Experienced chronic pain Suffered from Soldier’s Disease (became a morphine addict Freud recognized his morphine addiction and treated it with oral cocaine Was not effective, so started giving him cocaine intravenously Began to use cocaine 20-30 times a day while taking morphine Cocaine overdose – started exhibiting 2 principle symptoms of what is now called “Cocaine Psychosis, o Formication Syndrome The feeling that bugs are crawling n or under your skin Called “coke bugs” or “crank bugs” w/methamphetamines o Paranoid state or Paranoid ideations Extreme paranoia Very similar to schizophrenic delusions Believed that he had been in the military and his wife of 20 years was a British Spy/sleeper agent placed in the community to marry him because he was the king of Russia Delusions of persecution (wife is a spy) & delusions of grandeur (I am the king of Russia) Formication Syndrome & Paranoid state are symptoms of overdosing on stimulant drugs (cocaine, methamphetamine, & bath salts) Symptoms are reversible if the person stops taking the cocaine Freud retracted many of his articles (located in the Uber Coca journal – translates to About Cocaine in English) praising cocaine but he was too late because the cocaine epidemic was already widespread through Europe and the U.S. Cocaine in the Literature Sherlock Holmes o Heavy user of cocaine in the original series o Injected 7% solution of cocaine, play his violin, then he would solve the mystery o His companion Dr. Watson scolded him that he should stop taking cocaine o Cocaine use presented in a positive light Robert Lewis Stevenson o Hospitalized for treatment of Tuberculosis o Became a heavy user o Wrote Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Characterized mood swings he experienced while using cocaine Annie C. Meyers o “Well-balanced Christian woman” before becoming a “cocaine fiend” o “I deliberately took a pair of shears and pried loose a tooth that was filled with gold. I then extracted the tooth, smashed it up, and the goal went to the nearest pawnshop, blood streaming down my face and drenching my clothes, where I sold it for 80 cents to buy cocaine.” o First description in the English Language of the idea that cocaine can causing a craving so intense that people will do desperate things to get it These problems with cocaine led creators of 1914 Harrison Act to include cocaine with heroin and morphine (opiates) as the first illegal drugs in the U.S. o Successful in decreasing cocaine use o Gave way to amphetamines in the 1920’s Amphetamines Synthetic stimulants Duration of action a lot longer than cocaine 3 most important o Amphetamine (6-8 hours) Taking the drug orally Least potent Most short-acting o Dextroamphetamine (8-10 hours) More potent More longer lasting o Methamphetamine (12+ hours) Most powerful Most potent Longest acting Not widely available until 1940s o Became more popular o Medical use became well known o EX: used by soldiers in WWII for its effects (awake and alert for extended periods of time Fads and Trends of Amphetamine Use In post war Japan there was an amphetamine abuse epidemic o This was the first evidence that these drugs might have a high abuse potential Rumored that the first induced drug all-nighter took place at the University of Minnesota o Readily available for students in the 50’s and 60’s Long distance truck drivers began to take them o Could drive from NY to LA and get turned around without having to sleep Used as a diet pill in the 60s and 70s o Amphetamines suppress hunger and users typically lose weight and feel happier o Eventually they start to gain the weight back and mood suppresses o Started seeing specific patterns of polydrug abuse – some individuals needed amphetamine to wake up in the morning and a sleeping pill to go to sleep at night o Go from taking a pill to lose to being addicted to two kinds of drugs Galizio’s Principle of Pernicious Drug Effects Tolerance develops at different rates for different drug effects o EX: amphetamines produce a lot of effects and tolerance doesn’t develop evenly at the same rate for every effect of the drug The desirable effects of a drug seem to produce tolerance the fastest Negative side effects are resistant to tolerance Methamphetamine Timeline 1960s – medical use of amphetamines became rare On the west coast there was an epidemic of heroin addiction Haight Ashbury Free Clinic physicians tried to treat the heroin addicts with oral amphetamines Oral didn’t work well, so they started prescribing IV amphetamines Invented the speedball (combination of opiates, methamphetamine, and cocaine – heroin and meth or heroin and cocaine); users report intensely pleasurable effects that are more pleasant than any of the drugs alone o Inadvertently created a whole new drug problem “speed freak” o Methamphetamine addiction swept the U.S. and Europe in late 1960s Discovered that when meth was injected in high doses, it could produce same effects of cocaine psychosis o More likely to because longer acting o EX: when a user takes cocaine they will experience the effects of that drug for 12+ hours Don’t experience the flash/rush for that long o EX 2: use methamphetamine and have high dose in your system After an hour, you don’t feel flash/rush anymore Take another shot Although you don’t feel as high, level of methamphetamine in your body is still increasing Eventually develop crank bugs and paranoid ideations Late 1960s/Early 1970s – developed a national campaign that speed kills o Beatles/Rolling Stones o Use of amphetamines began to drop because of the messages from these musicians Substance abuse is like a water balloon you squeeze it in one place and it pops out somewhere else o Push towards taking cocaine (natural, organic, & feels good) Cocaine in the 1970s Cocaine made a major comeback Major movement to legalize cocaine during the Carter administration This quote was found in a textbook; in the mainstream psychological literature in which the author Ashley says; “Cocaine is not an addictive or especially dangerous drug. It should be legalized” (Ashley, 1976) The George Jung Story In the mid-1970’s cocaine was expensive and difficult to obtain George Jung, a small time marijuana dealer, made connections in Latin America with an enterprising Columbian Egan to bring cocaine across the border into the U.S. with him when he brought in marijuana His friend (Pablo Escobar) back in Columbia discovered that he could organize a lot of people to grow coca and purchased coca from neighboring countries Became a very rich and powerful figure in Columbia Columbian Cartels Medellin – Pablo Escobar: became so powerful that he was running the Columbian government o Owned enough military to get away with anything o Owned judges and politicians in Columbia Cali – rival of the Medellin Cartel o Went to war with Medellin Cartel o Basically a Civil War in Columbia with explicit approval of the government to supply Americans with cocaine 2.18.16 Cocaine Effects Effects, hazardous potential, and abuse potential depend crucially on: o The form of administration o How the drug is prepared o Form the drug is used Form Chemistry Method Coca Leaf --- Oral Coca Paste (Basuco) Cocaine Sulfate Smoking Street Cocaine Cocaine Hydrochloride Injection Intra-nasal Crack Freebase cocaine Smoking EX: if you’re delivering a very low quantity of cocaine to the brain (i.e. chewing coca leaf) there aren’t a lot of side effects o Probably why Jaffe didn’t see cocaine as a problem Steps to producing cocaine o Gather huge quantities of the coca leaf o Seep in a solvent solution o Left with sulfuric acid and is washed out as coca paste, which can be smoked o Produces a salt (cocaine sulfate) o Coca paste seeped in a solution of hydrochloric acid; results in a very pure form of cocaine that can be injected or snorted (street cocaine) Pure cocaine hydrochloride is the white fluffy powder Readily soluble and absorbed by mucous membranes Snorting cocaine o Absorbed through mucosa membranes in the nose o Limit to how much can be snorted o Causes capillaries to constrict; no longer absorbing o Heavy users have tissue damage to the nose that can be severe o Cutting off blood flow to those tissues Typical Pattern of Cocaine Use o Snort a line in one nostril o Snort a line in the other nostril o After a half hour or so users might want a third line o Mostly absorbed through stomach and liver o Less of the drug reaches the brain o Has caused overdoses and death Cocaine in the 1970s Very expensive prior to this time Cocaine glamourized and used by movie stars and athletes Hollywood Henderson – football player o Had a $20,000 a day cocaine habit Few people had sufficient access to cocaine Transition from cocaine as glamorous to cocaine as dangerous When Escobar started delivering cocaine to the U.S. it became more readily available and considerably cheaper Cocaine hydrochloride/street cocaine can be injected o In the 70’s and 80’s few people were interested in injecting cocaine Development of “crack” (name for one form of freebase cocaine) o To freebase is to separate the cocaine base from the salt o If you do this, then cocaine can be smoked o Wasting cocaine if you try to smoke it as a salt Freebasing o Melting it into a vapor and then inhaling the vapors o In the early days, ether (or some other flammable substance) was used to separate the base from the salt EX: Ether blew up and disfigured Richard Pryor o These events reduce interest in freebasing cocaine with ether James and Inciardi According to them, freebasing started in Miami A chemist found that if you take cocaine hydrochloride and boil away the water, you’re left with a hard (but flammable) substance that has freebase cocaine o Now called “crack” o Basically broken into small pieces which can be vaporized o Get 1 or 2 inhalations per rock o Produce intensely pleasurable experience Described cocaine as the most dangerous drug on earth Crack Phenomenon Quickly swept through the U.S. in the 80s & 90s Short-acting like cocaine Intensely pleasurable experience may only last 30 seconds Poster child for acute tolerance (the 2nd hit doesn’t get you back to where you want to be) Crack phenomenon is the impulsive need to take more of the drug Less expensive Cartels in 80s and 90s delivering cocaine at low cost in the U.S. o Could take a kilo of cocaine, turn it into crack, and sell it into crack rocks to make an enormous profit More intense effects & risk of overdose o Person hitting one rock after another to change the initial high o Meanwhile the physical effects of cocaine are still present Much higher addiction rate than we ever saw with snorting cocaine 1988 Anti-Drug Abuse Act – 5 year mandatory sentence for crack possession Cocaine and Crack today Major dependence problems remain In July 2010, 1988 Anti-Drug Abuse Act replaced o 5 year mandatory sentence for crack possession was repealed o In the 2000s there were thousands and thousands of people spending time in jail for small quantities of crack o Law created a form of racial discrimination 80% of those jailed for crack possession were black o Repeal of this law ended a practice of legal racial discrimination and the use and hazards of cocaine have not increased In the past 6 years, cocaine use has slightly declined 1980s – people thought that one hit off the crack pipe would cause addiction but no drug produces addiction with one use Coca Today 2000-2005 – Cartels weaken in Columbia because of less corrupt government & Pablo Escobar is shot and killed o Cartels corrupted entire government of Columbia through the 80s & 90s o Columbians began to get their government back in the late 90s Coca production (growing coca trees and bushes) in Bolivia and Peru still legal o 2006 – Evo Morales (Bolivian President) chewed coca during a U.N. speech on international drug laws o Believes that chewing of the coca leaf is not a drug o Part of their cultural history and Europe & North America shouldn’t dictate their drug laws 2016 – coca flour, tea, and other products legally and readily available throughout Bolivia, Peru, and much of South America o Cultural practice o Similar to alcohol use in North America and tea in Great Britain o Harina de Coca is a coca flour o Coca tea produces psychoactive effects (but they are low level because it’s oral administration) Similar to the levels of stimulation you would get with a cup of coffee o Coca farmers grow coca on a small farm (with a license to grow coca) and can sell it to the government at a fixed price; can only grow a certain amount o Black market for cocaine here as well Percentage of High School Seniors Reporting Use of Cocaine During the Past Year National High School Student Survey (University of Michigan) Began in the mid-1970’s & conducted every year since 1976 Self-reported drug use data 100,000+ students Cons: some people may lie about using illegal drugs or may not know exactly what they are taking Did you use cocaine during your Senior Year? o Use of cocaine increased in late 1970s o Up 12% by mid-1980s o Then drops to very low levels in early 90’s o Crept back up and remained steady through the early 2000s o 2015 – lowest level of cocaine use that’s been reported since the survey began Statistics > 4.8 million users Down 20% from 10 year ago Crack and other forms of cocaine use still led to > 500,000 hospital visits o More than any other illegal drug Cocaine and crack continue to be abuse problems although they aren’t as significant/as broad as they were a few years ago Methamphetamine Names: speed, crank, ice, crystal meth Replaced declining cocaine use (in regards to stimulant use) 2010 – epidemic was starting to peak Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act Federal law passed in 2006 Sudafed treated like a Schedule V drug (over-the-counter) o Contains an ingredient that is a precursor to making meth o Buying a large amount will raise red flags on DEA computer screens Meth lab seizures in the U.S. have dropped Hasn’t made a difference in the availability of methamphetamine Precursors to amphetamine are now available in Mexico (funded Mexican cartels) Mechanism of Action: Cocaine and Amphetamines All stimulants block reuptake of monoamines (dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine) important of regulation in mood 2 things that can happen to it o Enzyme breakdown – neurotransmitter molecule destroyed o Reuptake – taken back up into the axon terminal that released it Block reuptake of dopamine molecules o Dopamine is binding to some of the dopamine receptors o Cocaine is not an agonist – it’s binding to the transporter molecules (reaching out into the synapse, grabbing the dopamine, and sucking it back up into the synapse) Cocaine is blocking the ability of these transporter molecules to clean dopamine out of the synapse o Essentially, dopamine molecules are going to stay in the synapse longer and bind to dopamine receptors for a much more extended period of time o In the short run, you’re going to get a tremendous storm of dopamine activity & all dopamine pathways will be hyperactive o Most of the effects of cocaine and amphetamines are mediated by dopamine One characteristic of withdrawal is monoamine depletion o Imagine you are on a binge of stimulant use o Monoamines start to deplete o You will crash (not eating or sleeping) Principal withdrawal symptom: depression (“cocaine blues”) o Experience anhedonia (inability to feel pleasure) o Dopaminergic pathway isn’t producing enough dopamine Sympathomimetic Effects Physical effects of stimulant drugs Symptoms: o Increased heartrate o Increased blood pressure o Increased respiratory rate o Pupil dilation o Increased sweating o Changes in blood flow More blood flow to big muscle groups More blood flow to brain Part of the Anorectic effects may be due to the fact that you’re reducing blood flow to the gut Some of the psychological effects are due to increased level of oxygen that you’re delivering to the brain Stimulant Effects Insomnia (suppresses sleep) Anorexia (suppresses appetite) Dry mouth (“meth mouth”) o Chronic use leads to teeth deterioration o Bacteria forms more readily Alertness & Arousal o Research started in the 1950s and 60s o Had military personnel in Alaska watching radar screens o Complete a vigilance task (seated in small room and told to click the mouse any time you see a specific target presented on the screen) o Stimulant drugs (especially amphetamines) will cause tremendous reduction in errors o Allows you to pay attention in a dull environment for an extended period of time Sexual Effects o Impotence in men (erectile dysfunction)
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