Intro to Sociology Notes Week 5
Intro to Sociology Notes Week 5 Soc 100
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Pimental on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 100 at Indiana University taught by Professor Felicia Helvey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Week 5 I. Lecture 5 (2/8/26) a. Self & Social Interaction b. Socialization c. Identity i. -Self ID ii. -Social ID d. Roles e. Social Interaction i. Erving Goffman ii. G.H. Mead iii. Charles Cooley A. Why Study Social Interaction? a. -We learn about ourselves & our social lives b. Gain better insight into different perceptions of the social world as well as how humans shape reality c. Provides insight into larger social systems & institutions B. Socialization: the social process though which children develop an awareness of social norms and values and achieve a distinct sense of self a. It’s a life-long process b. Socialization leads to social reproduction 1. Parents aren’t only agents of socialization. Other agents are family peers, school, media, work c. Social Reproduction: process of perpetuating values, norms & social practices through socialization which leads to structural continuity over time. 1. Socialization occurs through social interaction d. -Consideration for what’s said in interactions, facial expressions, body language & laws e. Through the socialization process individuals develop their self-identities and learn how to fulfill their social obligations. C. Identity a. Identity: the distinctive characteristic of a persons or groups character that relate to who he is and what is meaningful to him. b. Some of the main sources of identity include gender, sexual orientation, nationality, ethnicity, and social class D. Self- Identity a. Sets us apart as distinct individuals b. Process of self-development through which we develop a unique sense of ourselves. c. Self Identity can be something like being a good friend E. Social Identity: characteristics attributed to an individual by others reflective of collective identities F. Social Roles a. Status: position within a social system that someone occupies b. Social Role: Behavior expectations of a given status c. Example: Status: College Instructor Social Role: To educate undergraduate students G.H. Mead Stages of Child Development Imitation: imitating the actions of others Play: the imitation of status positions and their roles; understanding symbols & what they represent Game: ability to act out several roles, understand relationship between different actors and their associated roles G. Self= Product of social interaction a. The “Self” is the “I” and the “me” b. Self-an object. What distinguishes us from animals is that we can step outside ourselves and evaluate. c. “Me”- Socialized part of the self. Represents attitudes & expectations of others. Also known as the “Generalized Other.” Self-consciousness develops from being able to stand outside of and examine yourself as an object. 1. The “Me” is the major instrument of social control d. “I”- The unsocialized & creative part of the self. It responds within the context of the “me.” The “I” exists with the present and can only be evaluated when the actions and attitudes enacted are part of the past, and hence part of the “me” H. Charles Cooley, The Looking Glass Self a. Self develops through social interaction b. Individuals imagine how they are perceived by others & subsequently react based on those imagined perceptions. 1. Essentially, what we believe others believe about us shapes our self- concepts I. Social Media a. How does social media impact our social identities and self-identities? 1. Multiplies & increases the audiences 2. Opportunity to really play up front stage 3. Share typical backstage things because of perceived anonymity J. Erving Goffman & the Dramaturgical Perspective a. Social life is played out by actors on a stage. How we act depends on the roles played at a given time b. Impression Management: Means through which individuals (actors) control the image they want to project; compel others to react to them in the ways they wish 1. Front stage and back stage in the performance (social interaction) refer to the relationship between the role actors are playing and the audience. 2. Front Stage: performance of role in society, open for observation by others 3. Back stage: where actors express themselves in ways that is hidden in front stage K. In addition to evaluating and redefining performances, actors can express themselves in ways that the audience would not approve of if they were observing at the time a. Humans have a fragile self that is vulnerable to embarrassment b. As a stage, social life is a collaborative effort among many actors who work together to make a scene work. c. Collaborative effort to make some interactions do not end in embarrassment Lecture 6 (2/10/16) I. Deviance & Stigma A. Norms: Rules of Conduct that specify appropriate behavior in a given range of social situations. A norm either prescribes a given type of behavior or forbids B. Deviance: Modes of actions that do not conform to the norms of values held by most numbers of a group or society a. Deviance is universal b. No one conforms to all rules c. What is thought of as deviant depends on the group, culture, and society d. Deviance isn’t always something negative C. All social norms carry sanctions a. Sanctions: a mode of reward or punishment that reinforces socially expected forms of behavior. b. Sanctions can be formal or informal D. Laws: rules of behaviors established by political authority and backed by state power a. Crime: Any actions that contravene the laws established by a political authority b. Not all deviant actions are criminal in nature c. Not all crimes are an act of deviance 1. Underage drinking is a crime, but is not socially deviant as a majority of minors consume alcohol. E. Functionalist Theories a. Crime & deviance result from structural tensions and a lack of moral integrations within society b. Anomie: A situation in which social norms lose their hold over individual behavior 1. Anomie exists when there are no clear standards to guide behavior in a given area of social life c. Durkheim 1. Believed anomie to be related to suicide 2. Considered the importance of religion as a social institution 3. Saw crime and deviance as inevitable functions of society 4. Since there is more room for individual choice, there is more room for nonconformity 5. Functions of deviance: Brings about change. Promotes boundaries maintenance d. Merton 1. Believed anomie refers to the strain put on individuals behavior when accepted norms are conflicted with social reality 2. Deviance is a by-product of economic inequalities 3. Split people into 5 possible types on how they respond to the tensions between socially endorsed values and the limited means of achieving them a. Conformist: Still believe in the ideology despite evidence of its short comings and behave in ways that conform to those beliefs b. Ritualists: Still work toward their goals and follow the norms of the ideology, but the belief system isn’t necessarily there, they’re losing faith and going through the motions c. Innovators: they may still believe in the ideology, but they’ve found other means of reaching their goals because they’ve fallen short through normative means d. Retreatists: Go away from society to be alone and do their own thing as they no longer believe in the ideology e. Rebels: These people’s norms completely differ from the dominant ideology and won’t subvert to the system. These are protesters and the like F. Interactionist Theories on Deviance a. Look for the underlying causes of deviance 1. Learned Deviance: individuals have learned deviance from associating with those who are deviant 2. Labeling theory: Individuals are taking deviant action because they’ve bene labelled deviant 3. Conflict Theory: People commit deviance and crime to make a political or otherwise statement, usually to draw attention to social inequalities 4. Control theory: people are rational actors. There’s a level of control because people want to maximize their profit, but people are watching so they won’t perform deviance because others are around and it will be frowned upon, at the least. b. Redefining Deviance a. If what is currently labeled as deviant is relabeled as normative, there will be less deviance b. It also potentially reduces stigma G. What is Stigma? a. In Greece, it used to signify a tattoo or a mark for religious purposes, to brand slaves, or criminals to indicate their transgressions 1. Mark of shame 2. Linking of a label to negative stereotypes 3. Propensity to exclude or discriminate b. Stigma Process 1. Selection & labeling of salient characteristics 2. Labeled differences are evaluated with some labels being linked to negative stereotypes 3. Creates a distinction between “us” and “them” 4. The stigmatized pick up on the emotions and attitudes of stigmatizers 5. The stigmatized group experiences status loss and discrimination c. Self Stigma a. In the case of mental illness, stigma causes more harm than the illness itself i. Mental illness stigma is in the media; dangerousness, loack of images of success b. Self-stigma or internalized stigma: internalization of stigma; devaluation of self i. Self-stigma can lead to treatment avoidance, reduced self-esteem, lower quality of life ii. Avoidance of illness disclosure due to stigma could lead to social isolation, reduced life opportunities, reduced opportunities for treatment c. Stigma persists due to perceived dangerousness d. Stigma exists to keep people down e. Stigma exists to enforce norms; the strong disapproval makes subsequent social transgressions less likely
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