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EUH 4241 Week 5 Notes

by: Emily Johnson

EUH 4241 Week 5 Notes EUH 4241

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Emily Johnson

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In class notes from 2/9-2/11
The Holocaust
Robert Gellately
Class Notes
EUH 4241, European History, Florida State, The Holocaust
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Johnson on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EUH 4241 at Florida State University taught by Robert Gellately in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see The Holocaust in History at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 02/14/16
Attraction of the Nazis (2/9)  Review  Factors that produce consensus  1) Curing unemployment  2) Beating Treaty of Versailles  3) Restore law and order  Plebiscites  ● Vote of the common people for constitutional changes  ○ completely constitutional; in the constitution drawn up by the Weimar  Republic  ● plebian: common people  ● Hitler wants to show the world that he has the support of the people through the  plebiscites  Roehm­Putsch a ​ka Night of the long knives  ● June 30, 1934  ● Ernst Roehm accused of planning a Putsch (revolution)  ● Fewer than 100 killed  ○ Included last Chancellor and his wife  Popular Response to Night of the long knives  ● SA presented as threats, gay, etc.  ● No more purges  ● July 3, 1934 post­facto law  ● “Legalized” killing to “defend” state  Versailles (June 1919)  ● Army: limited to 100,000  ● Weapons limited  ● No general staff  ● Small Navy (20,000) and Air Force  August 2, 1934:   ● President dies, and military swears an oath of Loyalty to Hitler  ○ Stormtroopers disbanded?  (III) Racial Policy: Eugenic/Racial Agenda  Racial Agenda of Two Kinds  1) Purifying the German nation (volk): cleanse the body politic  2) For the Jews: end civil and legal rights, force out to somewhere or anywhere­­this  changes later  Eugenics  ● “Racial Hygene”  ● Father of Eugenics: Francis Galton (1822­1911)  ○ Darwin’s cousin  ○ Book  ■ Hereditary Genius​  (1969)  ■ “Nature over Nurture”  ■ Studied twins (1875)    ○ Policies  ■ Encourage “marks” or “grades” for people, encourage them to have  children  ■ Press the brilliant to marry earlier  ■ Used physiognomy photographs to recognize the “dysgenic”  ● Compulsory Sterilization  ○ US the Pioneer  ■ Indiana 1907  ■ Buck v. Bell: compulsory sterilization deemed constitutional for use  on “unfit” and mentally unstable  Nazi Germany  ● 1) Multiply the “right kind” of people  ○ Valorization (glorification) of marriage and large families  ○ “Traditional” family values  ○ Ease divorce among childless  ○ Discourage birth control/enforce laws against abortion  Incentivize Marriage (June 1, 1933)  ● “Law for the Reduction of Unemployment”  ● Up to 1000 RM interest free  ● Race/medical test  ● Woman must leave job (dropped 1937), and…  ○ For each birth: 25% reduction of debt  ● Between August 1933­Dec 1937  ○ 878,016 Loans  ● New respect for motherhood and pregnant women (including those out of  wedlock)  NS Family Values  ● Like traditional German values  ● Embraced by German women’s movement  ● 3 Ks  Sexuality  ● Homosexuality: Old laws more enforced  ● Gay men harassed: need to be “won back” to heterosexuality  ● Lesbians: not seen as threatening to procreating race  Dysgenics  ● 2) Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring (July 14, 1933) +  dozen more laws  ● Forced sterilization: new to Germany   ● M.D.s and other experts decide  German Statistics 1933­45  ● 400,000 of all “races,” primarily non­Jews are sterilized  ● 50% male/female  ● Around 6,000 women, 600 men die of medical complications from procedures  Racism  ● Racism does not end; colors daily life  ● Radicalization explodes with war in 1939  (IV) Persecution of the Jews  ● German Population in 1933  ○ 65 Million  ● Number of Jews in Germany in 1933  ○ 499,682 “believing Jews”  ○ about 0.75% of total population  ○ About 20,000 “mixed marriages”  ● How did they know who is Jewish and who is not, and how many of each?   ○ Census Data  German Jewish Community  ● Not social outsiders in 1933  ● More rights than Jews in USA at the time  ○ Professors etc.   ● Nazi Aim: turn Jews into social outsiders  NS­Vacillation 1933­39  ● About 2,000 laws or ordinances, regulations, etc. Why?  ● Minimum: reverse emancipation; “separation” (apartheid)  ● Maximum: forced emigration  Local Variations in Activism 1933+  ● Places traditionally anti­Semitic  ● Vandalism, limited violence, few killed  ● Signs, park benches, vacation hotels  ● Public shaming rituals  ○ Eric Larson’s ​In the Garden of the Beasts  ■ Nuremburg 1933  Not in Larson’s Book  ● Couple picked up outside town  ● Marched through a village  ● He was sent to Dachau for 2 years and emigrated  ● Her head was shaved in public, then paraded, fate unknown.  Karneval  ● 11/11 each year at 11:00  ● Parades cancelled in 1931, 1932 with depression  How to interpret?  ● Karneval: to be humorous, satirical, light­hearted  ● Aim in Cologne?  ○ Ostracize Jews  ○ Make anti­semitism socially acceptable  Memoir  ● Sebastian Haffner, ​ Defying Hitler  ● March 1933: Grunewald  ○ “Juda verrecke!”  ○ School­children singing “The Jews should perish! The Jews should  perish!”  First​fficia Measures  ● Enabling Law: Hitler can pass any laws he wants  ● German State v. Nazi Party  ● April 1, 1933 (1 week after Enabling Law)  ○ Boycott of Jewish businesses; professionals    Persecution of the Jews: 1933­1939 (2/11)  The Persecutors 1933:  ● German state: Official, legal steps  ● Nazi Party/Affiliates: semi­legal, illegal acts  ● “Spontaneous” hotheads: illegal acts, mostly unprosecuted  Anti­Semitic Policy 1933­39  ● Minimum goal in 1933  ○ Reverse Emancipation of Jews  ● Maximum goal in 1933  ○ Forced removal of Jews  ● Straight­line or twisted road to what became the Holocaust?  Vacillation  ● About 2,000 laws or ordinances,   ● September 1939: revolution begins  “Individual Actions”  ● Violence and vandalism  ● Mostly Nazi Party or Hitler Youth  ● Off and on, 1933­35  ● Little to no police intervention  First Official Measures  ● Enabling Law: March 23, 1933  ● State and Nazi Party  ● April 1, 1933: State calls for boycott of Jewish businesses and professionals  Public Opinion  ● “How do we know what businesses are Jewish?”  ● Boycott generally unpopular; failed  ○ Nazis called it off after one day  ● Jews began to feel unwelcome in the land they loved  “Legal” State Discrimination  ● April 7, 1933: “Law for the restoration of the professional civil service”  ● Questionnaires  ○ About racial background of entire family  ○ To all teachers, civil servants, including university professors  More State Steps 1933  ● April 19: Boycott of Jewish professors  ● April 22: Uni. ​umerus clausus  ● Numbers clause  ● Population of university must be indicative of total population  ● Only 0.75% of Germany is Jewish? Only 0.75% of university can be Jewish  Deutsche Studentenschaft  ● National student election  ● Radical Nazism    Mid­term Exam  ● 1 hour: Need blue book  ● 3 questions  ○ One from from up to 1932  ○ One from 1923­1933  ○ One from 1933­1939  ● Choose one of two  ● Take about 20 minutes each    1935 more “Individual actions”  ● Meant to convey message: not state­sponsored  ● Passers­by witnessed in silence or cheered along  ● “Actions” rose, especially in summer 1935  Nuremberg Laws: Sept. 14, 1935  ● 1. Marriages  ○ Jews and “German or related blood” forbidden  ● 2. Extramarital Sex  ○ Jews and “German or related blood” forbidden  Race Crimes  ● Law for the protection of German blood and German honor  ● Prepared in advance for ​ Parteitag (Party day)  ● Crime: “Race defilement” or ​Rassenschande  Nuremberg Laws  ● Legal stipulations are   ○ Not on existing mixed marriages   ○ On unmarried or soon­to­be married couples  “Pure Blood”  ● Pan­Germans in pre­1914 Vienna  ● Mein Kampf​  (Hitler’s autobiography)  ○ Main theory: Pure and mixed blood respectively caused rise and fall of  civilizations  Nuremberg Laws to bring Clarity  ● “Race defilement” pilloried since early 1933  ● 1935 laws vague   ● Weak definition of “Jewish” and “german blooded” person  Victor Klemperer  ● What do the Germans really think about the Jews  ● Mixed marriages not dissolved  Cologne Once More  ● Karneval February 1936  ● Cologne, Catholic area, no tradition of anti­Semitism; didnot vote for Nazi Party  How to enforce Racial/Sexual Laws?  ● Task given the Gestapo  ● Files mostly destroyed, 3 cities  ● Wurzburg, Bavaria  ○ Overwhelmingly Catholic, Non­Nazi area   


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