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EBIO 1010-02 week 1 class notes: Intro to Biology, The Science of Biology, The Origin and Diversity of Life

by: Claire Jacob

EBIO 1010-02 week 1 class notes: Intro to Biology, The Science of Biology, The Origin and Diversity of Life EBIO 1010-02

Marketplace > Tulane University > Biological Sciences > EBIO 1010-02 > EBIO 1010 02 week 1 class notes Intro to Biology The Science of Biology The Origin and Diversity of Life
Claire Jacob
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These notes are derived from the class lectures during week 1. Make sure you check out the figures listed in your textbook as supplementary material to the lecture notes. A more detailed outline of...
Diversity of Life
Doosey, Michael
Class Notes
EBIO 1010-02, intro to biology, The Science of Biology, The Origin and diversity of Life




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claire Jacob on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1010-02 at Tulane University taught by Doosey, Michael in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life in Biological Sciences at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 02/14/16
Week 1: Intro and What is Biology?    The Science of Biology    Characteristics of living organisms  ● cellular organization  ● ordered complexity  ● utilize energy  ● excrete energy  ● respond to stimuli  ● maintain homeostasis    Living systems show hierarchal organization  ● each level has emergent properties… aka, they get easier to define as they get  higher/more complex    Deductive reasoning→ using general principles to make specific predictions  Inductive Reasoning→ using specific observations to develop general conclusions    Scientific method  ● observe  ● hypothesis (a possible explanation­ iterative, meaning it can be changed)  ● design an experiment  ● conduct the experiment  *we’re trying tdisprove​ hypotheses    Experiment  ● tests the hypothesis  ● 1 variable at a time  ● must include test experiment and a control experiment    Predictions  ● hypothesis should have predictions→ what you think will happen    Variables  ● dependent→ responds to the independent  ● independent→ manipulated by the scientist    Scientific theory  ● supported by lots of scientific evidence and reading  ● it’s accepted to be fact    Unifying Themes of Biology  Cell Theory→ life begets life… foundation for understanding growth and reproduction    Molecular basis of inheritance  ● Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)  ● sequence of 4 nucleotides encode cell’s info  ● Gene→ discrete unit of formation  ● Genome→ entire set of DNA instruction  ● heredity    Structure and function­ used for comparison across life    Diversity of Life arises by evolution  ● 3 Domains:  ○ Bacteria: single­celled prokaryote  ○ Archaea: single­celled prokaryote  ○ Eukarya: single or multi­celled eukaryote            The Origin and Diversity of Life  How were the conditions on Earth different in the deep past compared to conditions today?  ● composition of the atmosphere  ● pangea  ● climate    The Earth is Very Old  ● Geologic time is divided into 4 eras:  ○ Hadean  ○ Archaean  ○ Proterozoic  ○ Phanerozoic    Earth formed as a hot molten rock 4.6 billion years ago    Fig 26.1 in your textbook: do not have to memorize, but you should be familiar with it    Earth has changed over time (figure 26.3)  ● CO2  ● Plate tectonics  ○ Rodinia  ○ Gondwana  ○ Pangea    The past can be reconstructed from the fossil record  ● relative age→ position of fossil in the sediment tells us whether it’s older or younger than  another fossil  ● absolute age→ measure radioactive decay    Isotopes (forms of an element with different numbers of neutrons)  ● half­life→ how long it takes for the isotope to decay into its most stable form  ○ figure 26.4    Origin of Life  ● 1 hypothesis: life originated in oceans    Organic Molecules  ● extraterrestrial origin???  ○ an archae was carried to earth via an asteroid    Atmosphere lacked Oxygen gas (O2)  ● first organisms emerged 3.8­3.0 BYA    Miller­Urey Experiment  ● tried to create organic molecules BUT life begets life    RNA was 1st genetic material­ the first organisms were autotrophic (they make their own  energy)    Micro fossils were found in South Africa which can be dated to living appx 3.2 BYA    Life changes the planet  ● i.e. photosynthesis produced oxygen. Archaea took N2 and converted it to CO2 which  bacteria converted to O2, allowing for evolution of Oxygen breathers like you and me!    Ever­Changing life on Earth  ● evolution    Eukaryotic Characteristics  ● compartmentalization of cells  ● multicellular  ● sexual reproduction→ allows for evolution and genetic diversity    Bacteria and Archaea ruled the earth for 1 billion years before any other organisms developed    Eukaryotes have mitochondria and chloroplasts  ● many organelles evolved via endosymbiosis    Sexual Reproduction  ● Meiosis… produces haploid gametes  ● Crossing Over… mixes up mom and dad’s genes         


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