EBIO 1010-02 week 1 class notes: Intro to Biology, The Science of Biology, The Origin and Diversity of Life
EBIO 1010-02 week 1 class notes: Intro to Biology, The Science of Biology, The Origin and Diversity of Life EBIO 1010-02
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claire Jacob on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1010-02 at Tulane University taught by Doosey, Michael in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life in Biological Sciences at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Week 1: Intro and What is Biology? The Science of Biology Characteristics of living organisms ● cellular organization ● ordered complexity ● utilize energy ● excrete energy ● respond to stimuli ● maintain homeostasis Living systems show hierarchal organization ● each level has emergent properties… aka, they get easier to define as they get higher/more complex Deductive reasoning→ using general principles to make specific predictions Inductive Reasoning→ using specific observations to develop general conclusions Scientific method ● observe ● hypothesis (a possible explanation iterative, meaning it can be changed) ● design an experiment ● conduct the experiment *we’re trying tdisprove hypotheses Experiment ● tests the hypothesis ● 1 variable at a time ● must include test experiment and a control experiment Predictions ● hypothesis should have predictions→ what you think will happen Variables ● dependent→ responds to the independent ● independent→ manipulated by the scientist Scientific theory ● supported by lots of scientific evidence and reading ● it’s accepted to be fact Unifying Themes of Biology Cell Theory→ life begets life… foundation for understanding growth and reproduction Molecular basis of inheritance ● Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ● sequence of 4 nucleotides encode cell’s info ● Gene→ discrete unit of formation ● Genome→ entire set of DNA instruction ● heredity Structure and function used for comparison across life Diversity of Life arises by evolution ● 3 Domains: ○ Bacteria: singlecelled prokaryote ○ Archaea: singlecelled prokaryote ○ Eukarya: single or multicelled eukaryote The Origin and Diversity of Life How were the conditions on Earth different in the deep past compared to conditions today? ● composition of the atmosphere ● pangea ● climate The Earth is Very Old ● Geologic time is divided into 4 eras: ○ Hadean ○ Archaean ○ Proterozoic ○ Phanerozoic Earth formed as a hot molten rock 4.6 billion years ago Fig 26.1 in your textbook: do not have to memorize, but you should be familiar with it Earth has changed over time (figure 26.3) ● CO2 ● Plate tectonics ○ Rodinia ○ Gondwana ○ Pangea The past can be reconstructed from the fossil record ● relative age→ position of fossil in the sediment tells us whether it’s older or younger than another fossil ● absolute age→ measure radioactive decay Isotopes (forms of an element with different numbers of neutrons) ● halflife→ how long it takes for the isotope to decay into its most stable form ○ figure 26.4 Origin of Life ● 1 hypothesis: life originated in oceans Organic Molecules ● extraterrestrial origin??? ○ an archae was carried to earth via an asteroid Atmosphere lacked Oxygen gas (O2) ● first organisms emerged 3.83.0 BYA MillerUrey Experiment ● tried to create organic molecules BUT life begets life RNA was 1st genetic material the first organisms were autotrophic (they make their own energy) Micro fossils were found in South Africa which can be dated to living appx 3.2 BYA Life changes the planet ● i.e. photosynthesis produced oxygen. Archaea took N2 and converted it to CO2 which bacteria converted to O2, allowing for evolution of Oxygen breathers like you and me! EverChanging life on Earth ● evolution Eukaryotic Characteristics ● compartmentalization of cells ● multicellular ● sexual reproduction→ allows for evolution and genetic diversity Bacteria and Archaea ruled the earth for 1 billion years before any other organisms developed Eukaryotes have mitochondria and chloroplasts ● many organelles evolved via endosymbiosis Sexual Reproduction ● Meiosis… produces haploid gametes ● Crossing Over… mixes up mom and dad’s genes
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