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Mark Weekly notes

by: Asli Acar

Mark Weekly notes MARK 220-01

Asli Acar


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This week's notes
Simon Blanchard
Class Notes
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asli Acar on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MARK 220-01 at Georgetown University taught by Simon Blanchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING in Marketing at Georgetown University.


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Date Created: 02/14/16
03/02/16 Marketers behaving badly • Sometimes marketers take advantage of ambiguity and consumers’ lack of  sophistication  Misleading Consumers Intentionally FTC always seeking to prosecute those who intentionally mislead!   Demonstrations   e.g., Campbell’s soup – meat and potatoes above the broth because marbles were in  the bottom of the bowl – now more tightly regulated.  • In 1959, Palmolive made a commercial for their Rapid Shave shaving cream  showing that it was so moisturizing it made sandpaper soft enough to shave—turns  out it was just sand on top of Plexiglas  FTC always seeking to prosecute those who intentionally mislead!   Pragmatic Inferences – literally true, but figuratively false   “Brand X pills may relieve pain” – “may” interpreted as “usually” – see this with  weight loss programs  You have to substantiate the things that you write on the products  Comparison Omission – leave off comparison point  “Brand X gasoline gives you greater gas mileage”     Affirmation of the Consequent   “Women who look younger use Oil of Olay” – flip it to “Women who use Oil of  Olay look younger” – builds on people’s lack of understanding of conditional  probabilities.     Piecemeal Data – juxtaposition of imperatives   “Brand X has more headroom than a Mercedes, more leg room than a Cadillac, and  more trunk space than a BMW”  Properties of Long and Short Term Memory Capacity  Duration  Information  Coding  Loss  Short term  7 + 2  18 seconds  Rehearsal  Acoustic  memory  failure  (sound  related)  Long term  Unlimited  Permanent  Retrieval failure Semantic  memory  (meaning  related)  • Interpretation happens in short­term memory. • We pull and add things to long­term memory, as needed.  Associative Networks Information is stored in memory in an organized network structure. Network is  comprised of nodes and links.     Nodes = concepts/words     Links = associations between related concepts     Repetition strengthens the link ­­ more likely to prime related  concepts/provides a context.     Lack of use/strength of association diminishes...becomes less accessible in  memory.     Associations exercises ...  Definitions ­ Learning: A process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or  knowledge as a result of an individual’s experience.  • Happens over time. • Should influence behavior for a while. • Can occur as a result of one’s own experiences or someone else’s.   Analytical reasoning and analogies (interpretation)   Operant Conditioning   Serial (operant) conditioning   “Brute force” learning   Analytical reasoning: engaging in creative thinking to restructure and  recombine existing information to form new associations and concepts.   Operant conditioning: Basic learning process that involves changing the  probability that a response will be repeated by manipulating the consequences  of that response.  Reinforcing stimulus Aversive stimulus  Positive reinforcement  Positive punishment (Give  Stimulus  presented  (Give something good  something bad Target  (+ve)  Target behavior ↑ )  behavior ↓ )  Stimulus  Negative punishment (Take  Negative reinforcement  removed (­ away something good  (Take away something bad  Target behavior ↓)  Target behavior ↑)  ve)  Serial Conditioning ­ Shaping: Selectively reinforcing successively closer approximations of a goal  behavior until the goal behavior is displayed.  ­ Shaping involves using operant conditioning over time to change the frequency of a  series of target behaviors, culminating in a final goal behavior.  1. Launch  Coupon on shelf. Big discount.  2. Post­launch  Moderate discount on bottle itself.  3. No discount at all.  Learning without conditioning or reasoning  Chunking – 1­800­safeauto;  Grouping items to be processed as a unit   Rehearsal – engaging jingles and slogans (McDonald’s)  Repeating it over and over   Elaboration – Locker combination  Add additional meaning... use novel or unexpected stimuli  Evaluation of Alternatives­ Attitudes Belief:  • A descriptive thought that a person holds about something.  Attitude:  • A person’s consistently favorable or unfavorable evaluations, feelings, and  tendencies toward an object or idea.  i.e. evaluation of a belief  08/02/16 Balance Theory • With an imbalance, a person can: • Change the opinion of the object • Change the opinion of the other person • Decide the other person is mistaken • Avoid the other person and object  Affective Attitudes • How marketers can change the affective component:  • Using classical conditioning: pairing an stimulus that the audience likes with the  brand name  • Using emotions: creating arousal (positive or negative) (humor, celebrities,  emotional appeals, fear, guilt, etc)  • Mere exposure: repeated exposure increases familiarity and liking  • Classical conditioning: pairing a positive stimulus with the product or brand  The Buyer Process 1­Need Recognition  Occurs whenever a consumer recognizes a difference between the current state and the ideal or desired state.   Once we activate a need, a state of tension exists that drives the consumer to  some goal that will reduce this tension and eliminate the need.   Motivation is an internal state that drives us to satisfy needs.  Need rec Motivation Generate Motivation • We juggle many needs  that can’t be all satisfied at once, so we prioritize.  • Marketers should activate need recognition.  How?  • Advertise benefits—make it desirable, push for a new ideal state  • Generate concern about existing state  Only unmet needs are motivating.  Information Search  Once a need is activated, consumers search for information on how to satisfy it.   Consumers conduct an internal search for information by retrieving relevant  knowledge stored in memory   Consumers also employ external search for information by relying on outside  sources:   Personal sources  Commercial sources  Public sources  Experiential sources  Evaluation of Alternatives Consumers:  Identify consideration set (taken seriously): Narrow list and compare pros and  cons  Marketers:   Educate consumers about which product attributes should be considered   When brand is not part of the consideration set:   Product improvement + advertising   Induce trial  Striking package designs and display   Coupons, rebates  Product Choice  Rational choice suggests that we should evaluate all the information about all  the alternatives, weigh it all, and then make the optimal choice.   In reality, people often make choices based on heuristics—i.e., rules of thumb.  Examples?  Price = quality  Brand name  Country of origin  Post purchase Evaluation  How good a choice was it?   Customer satisfaction: does the performance meet expectations? Exceed them? Fall short?   Post purchase evaluation ultimately affects future purchase decisions—not  only for this particular consumer, but also for others due to word­of­ mouth  Two “non­rational” processes often influence post purchase evaluations   Adjustment (i.e., “hedonic treadmill”)   Lottery winners  Amputees   Cognitive Dissonance  “After the sale discomfort”  Post­Purchase Dissonance will begin once a consumer begins to  "notice" any disadvantages of their purchase, and begin to hear "good"  things about the other products they did not buy.  Post Purchase Opportunities for Marketers  Reinforce wisdom of consumers’ choice through:   Personalized contacts after sale  Advertising   Use recovery strategies:   GE spends $10 million/year on its 800 number Answer Center (3 million  calls/year). According to them, the payback is “multiple times” that.   Burger King: 4,000 calls a day on its 24­hour hot line   65% are complaints; 95% resolved in one call • BK calls back 25% within a month to check on satisfaction  Thought Experience • “I want you to walk over to the mailroom to grab a book I left there.”  • “I want you to walk over to the mailroom to grab a book I left there because I need  it.”  • “I want you to walk over to the mailroom to grab a book I left there because I need it for class.”  • What would influence your willingness to comply in each case?   Size of request  Person requesting ­­ liking, similarity, authority figure   Sense of obligation/reciprocity  Mindlessness: Cutting Line 93% Automaticity: The “Because” Heuristic  If you provide reasons for a request, people are more likely to comply.   When the request is small, the mere presence of “because” is enough to gain  compliance—even when the reason following “because” isn’t very  compelling.   When the request is large, the reason following “because” must be considered  legitimate to produce compliance; people are more mindful and less  “automatic” when costs are high.  Commitment and Consistency  Once we make a choice or take a stand, we experience pressure—both  internally and externally—to behave consistently with that commitment.   We respond in ways that justify our earlier decision.   In the context of influence, once people agree to one request, they are more  likely to agree to subsequent requests as well.  • Why? • Shows consistency between attitudes and behavior • Less effortful than re­processing all of the information that went into  The initial decision making process (i.e., it’s a heuristic)  • Foot­in­the­door: Make a small initial request, followed by a larger request later.   Compliance with small initial requests makes people feel like they are good,  nice, helpful people.   To preserve this positive image and appear consistent, people will continue to  comply with larger requests.   Examples? • Signing petitions • What about job/internship hunting?      Public commitments are very effective at instilling commitment.  • Smoking cessation programs encourage the smoker to “tell everyone who matters to  you that you are going to quit smoking”  • Websites like Stickk  • Low­ball: get an initial commitment from an individual and then change the “deal”  • People will stick with the new deal out of commitment to the old • Too much effort  to think through the entire new deal  • Some industries are notorious for this • Car dealerships  • Airlines used to be worse  Self­Defense Against These Techniques Listen to your gut when it tells you are being taken for a ride.  • Ask yourself, “Knowing what I know now, would I still make the same choice?”  • Tends to be effortful, but good for the big decisions (e.g., relationships, big  purchases, etc.).  • Tell the individual that you know exactly what they are trying to do and that it won’t work.  Reciprocate • When someone does us a favor, we feel obligated to return the favor—i.e., to  reciprocate  Reciprocity: Techniques Door­in­the­Face: make a large, unreasonable request followed by a smaller,  reasonable request.  • More than just a contrast effect • Smaller request has to seem reasonable • Both requests must be made by the same individual  • Don’t delay! Impact goes down if there’s a delay between the first and second  requests.  “That’s not all!” Sweeten the deal by adding bonuses. • People feel obligated to be reasonable and comply when offered a “good deal”  • Leads to more sales  Any potential concerns with this technique?  Survey Compliance Examples • Physicians are extremely busy, and their time is very valuable  • When promised $20 after returning a survey, 66% complied  • When a $20 check was included upfront in the first mailing, 78% complied—an 18%  increase in response rate!  • Of those who did not comply, the majority did not cash the check (95% of responders  cashed the check vs. 26% of non­responders)   While visiting a vintage furniture store, you find a coffee table that is  appealing to you. It’s $80, but you think that the salesperson may be  willing to negotiate.   Present the offer: After deliberating for a while, the (seller) agrees to  sell you the coffee table for $64, saying that it is her absolute lowest  price.   Make a favor request: However, she mentions that at this price, she  would hope there would be something in it for her. Specifically, she  says that after purchasing the coffee table and completing your  purchase it would be nice if you would consider posting a positive  review.  Scarcity:   When something becomes less accessible, the freedom to have it may be lost.  According to psychological reactance theory, people respond to the loss of freedom  by wanting to have it more.   Availability may also serve as a heuristic for inferring an object’s quality or value—i.e., the more valuable something is, the more difficult it usually is to obtain   As such, you may want to induce perceptions of scarcity   Examples?  Social Proof “Social Proof”—the perceived validity or correctness of an idea increases as the  number of people supporting the idea increases  • “Salting” the tip jar  • “Operators are standing by. Please call now,” became, “If operators are busy, please  call back later.”  Halo of Attractiveness • Attractive people fare better in the judicial system   Negligence victims are awarded almost twice as much in damages when they are more  attractive than the defendant   Attractive defendants are twice as likely to avoid jail time   If convicted, attractive people receive lighter sentences   Prisoners who had plastic surgery to correct facial deformities had lower rates of recidivism  • Attractive people make good salespeople! Authority  People are much more likely to comply when the requester has credentials or other  “symbols” of expertise and authority   This is often a useful heuristic for deciding how to achieve positive outcomes (e.g., for medical advice, listen to doctors, not Jenny McCarthy)   But deference to authority can also have a very, very dark side, as shown in  Milgram’s famous experiment 


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